Recent advances in machine learning have made it possible to train artificially intelligent agents that perform with super-human accuracy on a great diversity of complex tasks. However, the process of training these capabilities often necessitates millions of annotated examples -- far more than humans typically need in order to achieve a passing level of mastery on similar tasks. Thus, while contemporary methods in machine learning can produce agents that exhibit super-human performance, their rate of learning per opportunity in many domains is decidedly lower than human-learning. In this work we formalize a theory of Decomposed Inductive Procedure Learning (DIPL) that outlines how different forms of inductive symbolic learning can be used in combination to build agents that learn educationally relevant tasks such as mathematical, and scientific procedures, at a rate similar to human learners. We motivate the construction of this theory along Marr's concepts of the computational, algorithmic, and implementation levels of cognitive modeling, and outline at the computational-level six learning capacities that must be achieved to accurately model human learning. We demonstrate that agents built along the DIPL theory are amenable to satisfying these capacities, and demonstrate, both empirically and theoretically, that DIPL enables the creation of agents that exhibit human-like learning performance.
Decades of research in artificial intelligence (AI) have produced formidable technologies that are providing immense benefit to industry, government, and society. AI systems can now translate across multiple languages, identify objects in images and video, streamline manufacturing processes, and control cars. The deployment of AI systems has not only created a trillion-dollar industry that is projected to quadruple in three years, but has also exposed the need to make AI systems fair, explainable, trustworthy, and secure. Future AI systems will rightfully be expected to reason effectively about the world in which they (and people) operate, handling complex tasks and responsibilities effectively and ethically, engaging in meaningful communication, and improving their awareness through experience. Achieving the full potential of AI technologies poses research challenges that require a radical transformation of the AI research enterprise, facilitated by significant and sustained investment. These are the major recommendations of a recent community effort coordinated by the Computing Community Consortium and the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence to formulate a Roadmap for AI research and development over the next two decades.