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Abolish the #TechToPrisonPipeline

#artificialintelligence

The authors of the Harrisburg University study make explicit their desire to provide "a significant advantage for law enforcement agencies and other intelligence agencies to prevent crime" as a co-author and former NYPD police officer outlined in the original press release.[38] At a time when the legitimacy of the carceral state, and policing in particular, is being challenged on fundamental grounds in the United States, there is high demand in law enforcement for research of this nature, research which erases historical violence and manufactures fear through the so-called prediction of criminality. Publishers and funding agencies serve a crucial role in feeding this ravenous maw by providing platforms and incentives for such research. The circulation of this work by a major publisher like Springer would represent a significant step towards the legitimation and application of repeatedly debunked, socially harmful research in the real world. To reiterate our demands, the review committee must publicly rescind the offer for publication of this specific study, along with an explanation of the criteria used to evaluate it. Springer must issue a statement condemning the use of criminal justice statistics to predict criminality and acknowledging their role in incentivizing such harmful scholarship in the past. Finally, all publishers must refrain from publishing similar studies in the future.


Competence Assessment as an Expert System for Human Resource Management: A Mathematical Approach

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Efficient human resource management needs accurate assessment and representation of available competences as well as effective mapping of required competences for specific jobs and positions. In this regard, appropriate definition and identification of competence gaps express differences between acquired and required competences. Using a detailed quantification scheme together with a mathematical approach is a way to support accurate competence analytics, which can be applied in a wide variety of sectors and fields. This article describes the combined use of software technologies and mathematical and statistical methods for assessing and analyzing competences in human resource information systems. Based on a standard competence model, which is called a Professional, Innovative and Social competence tree, the proposed framework offers flexible tools to experts in real enterprise environments, either for evaluation of employees towards an optimal job assignment and vocational training or for recruitment processes. The system has been tested with real human resource data sets in the frame of the European project called ComProFITS.


Harvard: Israel's MedAware could save US health system millions per year

#artificialintelligence

Technology developed by Israel's MedAware could potentially save the United States health system $800 million annually by preventing medication errors, based on a study published earlier this week in the Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety.MedAware developed an AI-based patient safety solution. The new study that was conducted by two Harvard doctors validates both the significant clinical impact and anticipated ROI of MedAware's machine learning-enabled clinical decision support platform designed to prevent medication-related errors and risks.MedAware uses AI methods similar to those used in the finance sector to stop fraud, by identifying "outliers" from a trend or practice in order to recognize suspicious or erroneous transactions. Most other electronic health record alert systems are rule based.In the US alone, prescription drug errors result in "substantial morbidity, mortality and excess health care costs estimated at more than $20 billion annually in the United States," according to Dr. Ronen Rozenblum, assistant professor at Harvard Medical School and director of business development for patient safety research and practice at Brigham and Women's Hospital. Rozenblum was the study's lead author, along with Harvard professor Dr. David Bates. Rozenblum, an Israeli who has been living in Boston for more than a decade, has been testing MedAware for the past five years.


Teaching Responsible Data Science: Charting New Pedagogical Territory

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Although numerous ethics courses are available, with many focusing specifically on technology and computer ethics, pedagogical approaches employed in these courses rely exclusively on texts rather than on software development or data analysis. Technical students often consider these courses unimportant and a distraction from the "real" material. To develop instructional materials and methodologies that are thoughtful and engaging, we must strive for balance: between texts and coding, between critique and solution, and between cutting-edge research and practical applicability. Finding such balance is particularly difficult in the nascent field of responsible data science (RDS), where we are only starting to understand how to interface between the intrinsically different methodologies of engineering and social sciences. In this paper we recount a recent experience in developing and teaching an RDS course to graduate and advanced undergraduate students in data science. We then dive into an area that is critically important to RDS -- transparency and interpretability of machine-assisted decision-making, and tie this area to the needs of emerging RDS curricula. Recounting our own experience, and leveraging literature on pedagogical methods in data science and beyond, we propose the notion of an "object-to-interpret-with". We link this notion to "nutritional labels" -- a family of interpretability tools that are gaining popularity in RDS research and practice. With this work we aim to contribute to the nascent area of RDS education, and to inspire others in the community to come together to develop a deeper theoretical understanding of the pedagogical needs of RDS, and contribute concrete educational materials and methodologies that others can use. All course materials are publicly available at https://dataresponsibly.github.io/courses.


A 20-Year Community Roadmap for Artificial Intelligence Research in the US

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Decades of research in artificial intelligence (AI) have produced formidable technologies that are providing immense benefit to industry, government, and society. AI systems can now translate across multiple languages, identify objects in images and video, streamline manufacturing processes, and control cars. The deployment of AI systems has not only created a trillion-dollar industry that is projected to quadruple in three years, but has also exposed the need to make AI systems fair, explainable, trustworthy, and secure. Future AI systems will rightfully be expected to reason effectively about the world in which they (and people) operate, handling complex tasks and responsibilities effectively and ethically, engaging in meaningful communication, and improving their awareness through experience. Achieving the full potential of AI technologies poses research challenges that require a radical transformation of the AI research enterprise, facilitated by significant and sustained investment. These are the major recommendations of a recent community effort coordinated by the Computing Community Consortium and the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence to formulate a Roadmap for AI research and development over the next two decades.


A Clinical Approach to Training Effective Data Scientists

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Like medicine, psychology, or education, data science is fundamentally an applied discipline, with most students who receive advanced degrees in the field going on to work on practical problems. Unlike these disciplines, however, data science education remains heavily focused on theory and methods, and practical coursework typically revolves around cleaned or simplified data sets that have little analog in professional applications. We believe that the environment in which new data scientists are trained should more accurately reflect that in which they will eventually practice and propose here a data science master's degree program that takes inspiration from the residency model used in medicine. Students in the suggested program would spend three years working on a practical problem with an industry, government, or nonprofit partner, supplemented with coursework in data science methods and theory. We also discuss how this program can also be implemented in shorter formats to augment existing professional masters programs in different disciplines. This approach to learning by doing is designed to fill gaps in our current approach to data science education and ensure that students develop the skills they need to practice data science in a professional context and under the many constraints imposed by that context.


Realizing the Potential of Data Science

Communications of the ACM

The ability to manipulate and understand data is increasingly critical to discovery and innovation. As a result, we see the emergence of a new field--data science--that focuses on the processes and systems that enable us to extract knowledge or insight from data in various forms and translate it into action. In practice, data science has evolved as an interdisciplinary field that integrates approaches from such data-analysis fields as statistics, data mining, and predictive analytics and incorporates advances in scalable computing and data management. But as a discipline, data science is only in its infancy. The challenge of developing data science in a way that achieves its full potential raises important questions for the research and education community: How can we evolve the field of data science so it supports the increasing role of data in all spheres? How do we train a workforce of professionals who can use data to its best advantage? What should we teach them? What can government agencies do to help maximize the potential of data science to drive discovery and address current and future needs for a workforce with data science expertise?


Artificial Intelligence Studies Abroad At Elite Law School

#artificialintelligence

Law students in the United States usually get a healthy dose of legal technology infused into their educations to prepare them for the future of law practice. Since most legal technology education, research, and innovation tends to happen here, students studying law in foreign countries may be at a disadvantage. One elite law school is trying to make sure its students don't get left behind.


Top Data Sources for Journalists in 2018 (350 Sources)

@machinelearnbot

There are many different types of sites that provide a wealth of free, freemium and paid data that can help audience developers and journalists with their reporting and storytelling efforts, The team at State of Digital Publishing would like to acknowledge these, as derived from manual searches and recognition from our existing audience. Kaggle's a site that allows users to discover machine learning while writing and sharing cloud-based code. Relying primarily on the enthusiasm of its sizable community, the site hosts dataset competitions for cash prizes and as a result it has massive amounts of data compiled into it. Whether you're looking for historical data from the New York Stock Exchange, an overview of candy production trends in the US, or cutting edge code, this site is chockful of information. It's impossible to be on the Internet for long without running into a Wikipedia article.


Stem-ming the Tide: Predicting STEM attrition using student transcript data

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields play growing roles in national and international economies by driving innovation and generating high salary jobs. Yet, the US is lagging behind other highly industrialized nations in terms of STEM education and training. Furthermore, many economic forecasts predict a rising shortage of domestic STEM-trained professions in the US for years to come. One potential solution to this deficit is to decrease the rates at which students leave STEM-related fields in higher education, as currently over half of all students intending to graduate with a STEM degree eventually attrite. However, little quantitative research at scale has looked at causes of STEM attrition, let alone the use of machine learning to examine how well this phenomenon can be predicted. In this paper, we detail our efforts to model and predict dropout from STEM fields using one of the largest known datasets used for research on students at a traditional campus setting. Our results suggest that attrition from STEM fields can be accurately predicted with data that is routinely collected at universities using only information on students' first academic year. We also propose a method to model student STEM intentions for each academic term to better understand the timing of STEM attrition events. We believe these results show great promise in using machine learning to improve STEM retention in traditional and non-traditional campus settings.