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Dive into Deep Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Just a few years ago, there were no legions of deep learning scientists developing intelligent products and services at major companies and startups. When the youngest among us (the authors) entered the field, machine learning did not command headlines in daily newspapers. Our parents had no idea what machine learning was, let alone why we might prefer it to a career in medicine or law. Machine learning was a forward-looking academic discipline with a narrow set of real-world applications. And those applications, e.g., speech recognition and computer vision, required so much domain knowledge that they were often regarded as separate areas entirely for which machine learning was one small component. Neural networks then, the antecedents of the deep learning models that we focus on in this book, were regarded as outmoded tools. In just the past five years, deep learning has taken the world by surprise, driving rapid progress in fields as diverse as computer vision, natural language processing, automatic speech recognition, reinforcement learning, and statistical modeling. With these advances in hand, we can now build cars that drive themselves with more autonomy than ever before (and less autonomy than some companies might have you believe), smart reply systems that automatically draft the most mundane emails, helping people dig out from oppressively large inboxes, and software agents that dominate the worldʼs best humans at board games like Go, a feat once thought to be decades away. Already, these tools exert ever-wider impacts on industry and society, changing the way movies are made, diseases are diagnosed, and playing a growing role in basic sciences--from astrophysics to biology.


Smart and Secure CAV Networks Empowered by AI-Enabled Blockchain: Next Frontier for Intelligent Safe-Driving Assessment

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Securing a safe-driving circumstance for connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs) continues to be a widespread concern despite various sophisticated functions delivered by artificial intelligence for in-vehicle devices. Besides, diverse malicious network attacks become ubiquitous along with the worldwide implementation of the Internet of Vehicles, which exposes a range of reliability and privacy threats for managing data in CAV networks. Combined with another fact that CAVs are now limited in handling intensive computation tasks, it thus renders a pressing demand of designing an efficient assessment system to guarantee autonomous driving safety without compromising data security. To this end, we propose in this article a novel framework of Blockchain-enabled intElligent Safe-driving assessmenT (BEST) to offer a smart and reliable approach for conducting safe driving supervision while protecting vehicular information. Specifically, a promising solution of exploiting a long short-term memory algorithm is first introduced in detail for an intElligent Safe-driving assessmenT (EST) scheme. To further facilitate the EST, we demonstrate how a distributed blockchain obtains adequate efficiency, trustworthiness and resilience with an adopted byzantine fault tolerance-based delegated proof-of-stake consensus mechanism. Moreover, several challenges and discussions regarding the future research of this BEST architecture are presented.


The AI Index 2021 Annual Report

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Welcome to the fourth edition of the AI Index Report. This year we significantly expanded the amount of data available in the report, worked with a broader set of external organizations to calibrate our data, and deepened our connections with the Stanford Institute for Human-Centered Artificial Intelligence (HAI). The AI Index Report tracks, collates, distills, and visualizes data related to artificial intelligence. Its mission is to provide unbiased, rigorously vetted, and globally sourced data for policymakers, researchers, executives, journalists, and the general public to develop intuitions about the complex field of AI. The report aims to be the most credible and authoritative source for data and insights about AI in the world.


Heatmap-based Object Detection and Tracking with a Fully Convolutional Neural Network

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The main topic of this paper is a brief overview of the field of Artificial Intelligence. The core of this paper is a practical implementation of an algorithm for object detection and tracking. The ability to detect and track fast-moving objects is crucial for various applications of Artificial Intelligence like autonomous driving, ball tracking in sports, robotics or object counting. As part of this paper the Fully Convolutional Neural Network "CueNet" was developed. It detects and tracks the cueball on a labyrinth game robustly and reliably. While CueNet V1 has a single input image, the approach with CueNet V2 was to take three consecutive 240 x 180-pixel images as an input and transform them into a probability heatmap for the cueball's location. The network was tested with a separate video that contained all sorts of distractions to test its robustness. When confronted with our testing data, CueNet V1 predicted the correct cueball location in 99.6% of all frames, while CueNet V2 had 99.8% accuracy.


Scientists Imagine a Dream World of AI

#artificialintelligence

Artificial intelligence has come a long way since the 1950s when the concept has entered the minds of scientists, mathematicians, and philosophers. Alan Turing is often mentioned as one of the precursors of the artificial intelligence we know and use in our times. Moreover, his 1950 paper, Computing Machinery and Intelligence details how to build such intelligent machines and how to assess their intelligence. Since then, the concept of machine learning has made incredible progress. Deep learning systems are no longer in need of human programming. They learn on their own based on data sets to identify patterns and anomalies.


Report: State of Artificial Intelligence in India - 2020

#artificialintelligence

Artificial Intelligence or AI is a field of Data Science that trains computers to learn from experience, adjust to inputs, and perform tasks of certain cognitive levels. Over the last few years, AI has emerged as a significant data science function and, by utilizing advanced algorithms and computing power, AI is transforming the functional, operational, and strategic landscape of various business domains. AI algorithms are designed to make decisions, often using real-time data. Using sensors, digital data, and even remote inputs, AI algorithms combine information from a variety of different sources, analyze the data instantly, and act on the insights derived from the data. Most AI technologies – from advanced recommendation engines to self-driving cars – rely on diverse deep learning models. By utilizing these complex models, AI professionals are able to train computers to accomplish specific tasks by recognizing patterns in the data. Analytics India Magazine (AIM), in association with Jigsaw Academy, has developed this study on the Artificial Intelligence market to understand the developments of the AI market in India, covering the market in terms of Industry and Company Type. Moreover, the study delves into the market size of the different categories of AI and Analytics startups / boutique firms. As a part of the broad Data Science domain, the Artificial Intelligence technology function has so far been classified as an emerging technology segment. Moreover, the AI market in India has, till now, been dominated by the MNC Technology and the GIC or Captive firms. Domestic firms, Indian startups, and even International Technology startups across various sectors have, so far, not made a significant investment, in terms of operations and scale, in the Indian AI market. Additionally, IT services and Boutique AI & Analytics firms had not, till a couple of years ago, developed full-fledged AI offerings in India for their clients.


GPT-3 Creative Fiction

#artificialintelligence

What if I told a story here, how would that story start?" Thus, the summarization prompt: "My second grader asked me what this passage means: …" When a given prompt isn't working and GPT-3 keeps pivoting into other modes of completion, that may mean that one hasn't constrained it enough by imitating a correct output, and one needs to go further; writing the first few words or sentence of the target output may be necessary.


AI Research Considerations for Human Existential Safety (ARCHES)

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Framed in positive terms, this report examines how technical AI research might be steered in a manner that is more attentive to humanity's long-term prospects for survival as a species. In negative terms, we ask what existential risks humanity might face from AI development in the next century, and by what principles contemporary technical research might be directed to address those risks. A key property of hypothetical AI technologies is introduced, called \emph{prepotence}, which is useful for delineating a variety of potential existential risks from artificial intelligence, even as AI paradigms might shift. A set of \auxref{dirtot} contemporary research \directions are then examined for their potential benefit to existential safety. Each research direction is explained with a scenario-driven motivation, and examples of existing work from which to build. The research directions present their own risks and benefits to society that could occur at various scales of impact, and in particular are not guaranteed to benefit existential safety if major developments in them are deployed without adequate forethought and oversight. As such, each direction is accompanied by a consideration of potentially negative side effects.


Imposing Regulation on Advanced Algorithms

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This book discusses the necessity and perhaps urgency for the regulation of algorithms on which new technologies rely; technologies that have the potential to re-shape human societies. From commerce and farming to medical care and education, it is difficult to find any aspect of our lives that will not be affected by these emerging technologies. At the same time, artificial intelligence, deep learning, machine learning, cognitive computing, blockchain, virtual reality and augmented reality, belong to the fields most likely to affect law and, in particular, administrative law. The book examines universally applicable patterns in administrative decisions and judicial rulings. First, similarities and divergence in behavior among the different cases are identified by analyzing parameters ranging from geographical location and administrative decisions to judicial reasoning and legal basis. As it turns out, in several of the cases presented, sources of general law, such as competition or labor law, are invoked as a legal basis, due to the lack of current specialized legislation. This book also investigates the role and significance of national and indeed supranational regulatory bodies for advanced algorithms and considers ENISA, an EU agency that focuses on network and information security, as an interesting candidate for a European regulator of advanced algorithms. Lastly, it discusses the involvement of representative institutions in algorithmic regulation.


Data Science in Economics

arXiv.org Machine Learning

School of the Built Environment, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, OX3 0BP, UK. Abstract: This paper provides the state of the art of data science in economics. Through a novel taxonomy of applications and methods advances in data science are investigated. The data science advances are investigated in three individual classes of deep learning models, ensemble models, and hybrid models. Application domains include stock market, marketing, E-commerce, corporate banking, and cryptocurrency. Prisma method, a systematic literature review methodology is used to ensure the quality of the survey. The findings revealed that the trends are on advancement of hybrid models as more than 51% of the reviewed articles applied hybrid model. On the other hand, it is found that based on the RMSE accuracy metric, hybrid models had higher prediction accuracy than other algorithms. While it is expected the trends go toward the advancements of deep learning models. LSDL Large-Scale Deep Learning LSTM Long Short-Term Memory LWDNN List-Wise Deep Neural Network MACN Multi-Agent Collaborated Network MB-LSTM Multivariate Bidirectional LSTM MDNN Multilayer Deep Neural Network MFNN Multi-Filters Neural Network MLP Multiple Layer Perceptron MLP Multi-Layer Perceptron NNRE Neural Network Regression Ensemble O-LSRM Optimal Long Short-Term Memory PCA Principal Component Analysis pSVM Proportion Support Vector Machines RBFNN Radial Basis Function Neural Network RBM Restricted Boltzmann Machine REP Reduced Error Pruning RF Random Forest RFR Random Forest Regression RNN Recurrent Neural Network SAE Stacked Autoencoders SLR Stepwise Linear Regressions SN-CFM Similarity, Neighborhood-Based Collaborative Filtering Model STI Stock Technical Indicators SVM Support Vector Machine SVR Support Vector Regression SVRE Support Vector Regression Ensemble, TDFA Time-Driven Feature-Aware TS-GRU Two-Stream GRU WA Wavelet Analysis WT Wavelet Transforms 1. Introduction Application of data science in different disciplines is exponentially increasing. Because data science has had tremendous progresses in analysis and use of data. Like other disciplines, economics has benefited from the advancements of data science. Advancements of data science in economics have been progressive and have recorded promising results in the literature.