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Developing Future Human-Centered Smart Cities: Critical Analysis of Smart City Security, Interpretability, and Ethical Challenges

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

As we make tremendous advances in machine learning and artificial intelligence technosciences, there is a renewed understanding in the AI community that we must ensure that humans being are at the center of our deliberations so that we don't end in technology-induced dystopias. As strongly argued by Green in his book Smart Enough City, the incorporation of technology in city environs does not automatically translate into prosperity, wellbeing, urban livability, or social justice. There is a great need to deliberate on the future of the cities worth living and designing. There are philosophical and ethical questions involved along with various challenges that relate to the security, safety, and interpretability of AI algorithms that will form the technological bedrock of future cities. Several research institutes on human centered AI have been established at top international universities. Globally there are calls for technology to be made more humane and human-compatible. For example, Stuart Russell has a book called Human Compatible AI. The Center for Humane Technology advocates for regulators and technology companies to avoid business models and product features that contribute to social problems such as extremism, polarization, misinformation, and Internet addiction. In this paper, we analyze and explore key challenges including security, robustness, interpretability, and ethical challenges to a successful deployment of AI or ML in human-centric applications, with a particular emphasis on the convergence of these challenges. We provide a detailed review of existing literature on these key challenges and analyze how one of these challenges may lead to others or help in solving other challenges. The paper also advises on the current limitations, pitfalls, and future directions of research in these domains, and how it can fill the current gaps and lead to better solutions.


Essential Enterprise AI Companies Landscape

#artificialintelligence

Enterprise AI companies are increasingly growing in value and relevance. Global IT spending is expected to soon reach, and surpass $3.8 trillion. Enterprise AI companies are at the heart of this growth. This article will explain not only what enterprise AI companies are but also what they produce. We'll also look at how enterprise AI companies are impacting in various fields such as finance, logistics, and healthcare. Enterprise AI companies produce enterprise software. This is also known as enterprise application software or EAS for short. Generally, EAS is a large-scale software developed with the aim of supporting or solving organization-wide problems. Software developed by enterprise AI companies can perform a number of different roles. Its function varies depending on the task and sector it is designed for. In other words, EAS is software that "takes care of a majority of tasks and problems inherent to the enterprise, then it can be defined as enterprise software". Lots of enterprise AI companies use a combination of machine learning, deep learning, and data science solutions. This combination enables complex tasks such as data preparation or predictive analytics to be carried out quickly and reliably. Some enterprise AI companies are established names, backed by decades of experience. Other enterprises AI companies are relative newcomers, adopting a fresh approach to AI and problem-solving. This article and infographic will seek to highlight a combination of both. And focus on the real competitors for mergers and acquisitions as well as product development. To help you identify the best AI enterprise software for your business, we've segmented the landscape of enterprise AI solutions into categories. A lot of these enterprise companies can be classified in multiple categories, however, we have focused on their primary differentiation features. You're welcome to re-use the infographic below as long as the content remains unmodified and in full. The automotive industry is at the cutting edge of using artificial intelligence to support, imitate, and augment human action. Self-driving car companies and semi-autonomous vehicles of the future will rely heavily on AI systems from leveraging advanced reaction times, mapping, and machine-based systems.


A 20-Year Community Roadmap for Artificial Intelligence Research in the US

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Decades of research in artificial intelligence (AI) have produced formidable technologies that are providing immense benefit to industry, government, and society. AI systems can now translate across multiple languages, identify objects in images and video, streamline manufacturing processes, and control cars. The deployment of AI systems has not only created a trillion-dollar industry that is projected to quadruple in three years, but has also exposed the need to make AI systems fair, explainable, trustworthy, and secure. Future AI systems will rightfully be expected to reason effectively about the world in which they (and people) operate, handling complex tasks and responsibilities effectively and ethically, engaging in meaningful communication, and improving their awareness through experience. Achieving the full potential of AI technologies poses research challenges that require a radical transformation of the AI research enterprise, facilitated by significant and sustained investment. These are the major recommendations of a recent community effort coordinated by the Computing Community Consortium and the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence to formulate a Roadmap for AI research and development over the next two decades.