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Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI): An Engineering Perspective

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The remarkable advancements in Deep Learning (DL) algorithms have fueled enthusiasm for using Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies in almost every domain; however, the opaqueness of these algorithms put a question mark on their applications in safety-critical systems. In this regard, the `explainability' dimension is not only essential to both explain the inner workings of black-box algorithms, but it also adds accountability and transparency dimensions that are of prime importance for regulators, consumers, and service providers. eXplainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) is the set of techniques and methods to convert the so-called black-box AI algorithms to white-box algorithms, where the results achieved by these algorithms and the variables, parameters, and steps taken by the algorithm to reach the obtained results, are transparent and explainable. To complement the existing literature on XAI, in this paper, we take an `engineering' approach to illustrate the concepts of XAI. We discuss the stakeholders in XAI and describe the mathematical contours of XAI from engineering perspective. Then we take the autonomous car as a use-case and discuss the applications of XAI for its different components such as object detection, perception, control, action decision, and so on. This work is an exploratory study to identify new avenues of research in the field of XAI.


Approaching Neural Network Uncertainty Realism

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Statistical models are inherently uncertain. Quantifying or at least upper-bounding their uncertainties is vital for safety-critical systems such as autonomous vehicles. While standard neural networks do not report this information, several approaches exist to integrate uncertainty estimates into them. Assessing the quality of these uncertainty estimates is not straightforward, as no direct ground truth labels are available. Instead, implicit statistical assessments are required. For regression, we propose to evaluate uncertainty realism -- a strict quality criterion -- with a Mahalanobis distance-based statistical test. An empirical evaluation reveals the need for uncertainty measures that are appropriate to upper-bound heavy-tailed empirical errors. Alongside, we transfer the variational U-Net classification architecture to standard supervised image-to-image tasks. We adopt it to the automotive domain and show that it significantly improves uncertainty realism compared to a plain encoder-decoder model.


Artificial Intelligence Methods in In-Cabin Use Cases: A Survey

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

As interest in autonomous driving increases, efforts are being made to meet requirements for the high-level automation of vehicles. In this context, the functionality inside the vehicle cabin plays a key role in ensuring a safe and pleasant journey for driver and passenger alike. At the same time, recent advances in the field of artificial intelligence (AI) have enabled a whole range of new applications and assistance systems to solve automated problems in the vehicle cabin. This paper presents a thorough survey on existing work that utilizes AI methods for use-cases inside the driving cabin, focusing, in particular, on application scenarios related to (1) driving safety and (2) driving comfort. Results from the surveyed works show that AI technology has a promising future in tackling in-cabin tasks within the autonomous driving aspect.


Robust Machine Learning Systems: Challenges, Current Trends, Perspectives, and the Road Ahead

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Machine Learning (ML) techniques have been rapidly adopted by smart Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) and Internet-of-Things (IoT) due to their powerful decision-making capabilities. However, they are vulnerable to various security and reliability threats, at both hardware and software levels, that compromise their accuracy. These threats get aggravated in emerging edge ML devices that have stringent constraints in terms of resources (e.g., compute, memory, power/energy), and that therefore cannot employ costly security and reliability measures. Security, reliability, and vulnerability mitigation techniques span from network security measures to hardware protection, with an increased interest towards formal verification of trained ML models. This paper summarizes the prominent vulnerabilities of modern ML systems, highlights successful defenses and mitigation techniques against these vulnerabilities, both at the cloud (i.e., during the ML training phase) and edge (i.e., during the ML inference stage), discusses the implications of a resource-constrained design on the reliability and security of the system, identifies verification methodologies to ensure correct system behavior, and describes open research challenges for building secure and reliable ML systems at both the edge and the cloud.


Fusion of Federated Learning and Industrial Internet of Things: A Survey

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) lays a new paradigm for the concept of Industry 4.0 and paves an insight for new industrial era. Nowadays smart machines and smart factories use machine learning/deep learning based models for incurring intelligence. However, storing and communicating the data to the cloud and end device leads to issues in preserving privacy. In order to address this issue, federated learning (FL) technology is implemented in IIoT by the researchers nowadays to provide safe, accurate, robust and unbiased models. Integrating FL in IIoT ensures that no local sensitive data is exchanged, as the distribution of learning models over the edge devices has become more common with FL. Therefore, only the encrypted notifications and parameters are communicated to the central server. In this paper, we provide a thorough overview on integrating FL with IIoT in terms of privacy, resource and data management. The survey starts by articulating IIoT characteristics and fundamentals of distributive and FL. The motivation behind integrating IIoT and FL for achieving data privacy preservation and on-device learning are summarized. Then we discuss the potential of using machine learning, deep learning and blockchain techniques for FL in secure IIoT. Further we analyze and summarize the ways to handle the heterogeneous and huge data. Comprehensive background on data and resource management are then presented, followed by applications of IIoT with FL in healthcare and automobile industry. Finally, we shed light on challenges, some possible solutions and potential directions for future research.


Top 100 Artificial Intelligence Companies in the World

#artificialintelligence

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is not just a buzzword, but a crucial part of the technology landscape. AI is changing every industry and business function, which results in increased interest in its applications, subdomains and related fields. This makes AI companies the top leaders driving the technology swift. AI helps us to optimise and automate crucial business processes, gather essential data and transform the world, one step at a time. From Google and Amazon to Apple and Microsoft, every major tech company is dedicating resources to breakthroughs in artificial intelligence. As big enterprises are busy acquiring or merging with other emerging inventions, small AI companies are also working hard to develop their own intelligent technology and services. By leveraging artificial intelligence, organizations get an innovative edge in the digital age. AI consults are also working to provide companies with expertise that can help them grow. In this digital era, AI is also a significant place for investment. AI companies are constantly developing the latest products to provide the simplest solutions. Henceforth, Analytics Insight brings you the list of top 100 AI companies that are leading the technology drive towards a better tomorrow. AEye develops advanced vision hardware, software, and algorithms that act as the eyes and visual cortex of autonomous vehicles. AEye is an artificial perception pioneer and creator of iDAR, a new form of intelligent data collection that acts as the eyes and visual cortex of autonomous vehicles. Since its demonstration of its solid state LiDAR scanner in 2013, AEye has pioneered breakthroughs in intelligent sensing. Their mission was to acquire the most information with the fewest ones and zeros. This would allow AEye to drive the automotive industry into the next realm of autonomy. Algorithmia invented the AI Layer.


Interactive Visualization System that Helps Students Better Understand and Learn CNNs

#artificialintelligence

This research summary is just one of many that are distributed weekly on the AI scholar newsletter. To start receiving the weekly newsletter, sign up here. Artificial intelligence (AI) has grown tremendously in just a few years ushering us into the AI era. We now have self-driving cars, contemporary chatbots, high-end robots, recommender systems, advanced diagnostics systems, and more. Almost every research field is now using AI.


CARLA Real Traffic Scenarios -- novel training ground and benchmark for autonomous driving

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This work introduces interactive traffic scenarios in the CARLA simulator, which are based on real-world traffic. We concentrate on tactical tasks lasting several seconds, which are especially challenging for current control methods. The CARLA Real Traffic Scenarios (CRTS) is intended to be a training and testing ground for autonomous driving systems. To this end, we open-source the code under a permissive license and present a set of baseline policies. CRTS combines the realism of traffic scenarios and the flexibility of simulation. We use it to train agents using a reinforcement learning algorithm. We show how to obtain competitive polices and evaluate experimentally how observation types and reward schemes affect the training process and the resulting agent's behavior.


Developing Future Human-Centered Smart Cities: Critical Analysis of Smart City Security, Interpretability, and Ethical Challenges

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

As we make tremendous advances in machine learning and artificial intelligence technosciences, there is a renewed understanding in the AI community that we must ensure that humans being are at the center of our deliberations so that we don't end in technology-induced dystopias. As strongly argued by Green in his book Smart Enough City, the incorporation of technology in city environs does not automatically translate into prosperity, wellbeing, urban livability, or social justice. There is a great need to deliberate on the future of the cities worth living and designing. There are philosophical and ethical questions involved along with various challenges that relate to the security, safety, and interpretability of AI algorithms that will form the technological bedrock of future cities. Several research institutes on human centered AI have been established at top international universities. Globally there are calls for technology to be made more humane and human-compatible. For example, Stuart Russell has a book called Human Compatible AI. The Center for Humane Technology advocates for regulators and technology companies to avoid business models and product features that contribute to social problems such as extremism, polarization, misinformation, and Internet addiction. In this paper, we analyze and explore key challenges including security, robustness, interpretability, and ethical challenges to a successful deployment of AI or ML in human-centric applications, with a particular emphasis on the convergence of these challenges. We provide a detailed review of existing literature on these key challenges and analyze how one of these challenges may lead to others or help in solving other challenges. The paper also advises on the current limitations, pitfalls, and future directions of research in these domains, and how it can fill the current gaps and lead to better solutions.


Closeness and Uncertainty Aware Adversarial Examples Detection in Adversarial Machine Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Machine learning (ML) applications are transforming our everyday lives and the artificial intelligence technology is becoming an integral part of our civilization. As the artificial intelligence technology advances, it becomes a key component of many sophisticated tasks that have direct effect on humans. In the last few years, deep neural networks (DNNs) achieved state-of-the-art performances on different number of supervised learning tasks, which led them to become widely used in many fields such as medical diagnosis, computer vision, machine translation, speech recognition and autonomous vehicles [1, 2, 3, 4]. However, there exist serious concerns on how to make deep neural networks an integral part of our lives while ensuring utmost security and reliability. Although DNNs have proven their usefulness in the real-world applications for many complex problems, they have thus far failed to overcome the challenges faced by deliberately manipulated data, which are known as adversarial inputs [5].