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Challenges of Artificial Intelligence -- From Machine Learning and Computer Vision to Emotional Intelligence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) has become a part of everyday conversation and our lives. It is considered as the new electricity that is revolutionizing the world. AI is heavily invested in both industry and academy. However, there is also a lot of hype in the current AI debate. AI based on so-called deep learning has achieved impressive results in many problems, but its limits are already visible. AI has been under research since the 1940s, and the industry has seen many ups and downs due to over-expectations and related disappointments that have followed. The purpose of this book is to give a realistic picture of AI, its history, its potential and limitations. We believe that AI is a helper, not a ruler of humans. We begin by describing what AI is and how it has evolved over the decades. After fundamentals, we explain the importance of massive data for the current mainstream of artificial intelligence. The most common representations for AI, methods, and machine learning are covered. In addition, the main application areas are introduced. Computer vision has been central to the development of AI. The book provides a general introduction to computer vision, and includes an exposure to the results and applications of our own research. Emotions are central to human intelligence, but little use has been made in AI. We present the basics of emotional intelligence and our own research on the topic. We discuss super-intelligence that transcends human understanding, explaining why such achievement seems impossible on the basis of present knowledge,and how AI could be improved. Finally, a summary is made of the current state of AI and what to do in the future. In the appendix, we look at the development of AI education, especially from the perspective of contents at our own university.


The Role of Social Movements, Coalitions, and Workers in Resisting Harmful Artificial Intelligence and Contributing to the Development of Responsible AI

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

There is mounting public concern over the influence that AI based systems has in our society. Coalitions in all sectors are acting worldwide to resist hamful applications of AI. From indigenous people addressing the lack of reliable data, to smart city stakeholders, to students protesting the academic relationships with sex trafficker and MIT donor Jeffery Epstein, the questionable ethics and values of those heavily investing in and profiting from AI are under global scrutiny. There are biased, wrongful, and disturbing assumptions embedded in AI algorithms that could get locked in without intervention. Our best human judgment is needed to contain AI's harmful impact. Perhaps one of the greatest contributions of AI will be to make us ultimately understand how important human wisdom truly is in life on earth.


Software Engineering for AI-Based Systems: A Survey

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

AI-based systems are software systems with functionalities enabled by at least one AI component (e.g., for image- and speech-recognition, and autonomous driving). AI-based systems are becoming pervasive in society due to advances in AI. However, there is limited synthesized knowledge on Software Engineering (SE) approaches for building, operating, and maintaining AI-based systems. To collect and analyze state-of-the-art knowledge about SE for AI-based systems, we conducted a systematic mapping study. We considered 248 studies published between January 2010 and March 2020. SE for AI-based systems is an emerging research area, where more than 2/3 of the studies have been published since 2018. The most studied properties of AI-based systems are dependability and safety. We identified multiple SE approaches for AI-based systems, which we classified according to the SWEBOK areas. Studies related to software testing and software quality are very prevalent, while areas like software maintenance seem neglected. Data-related issues are the most recurrent challenges. Our results are valuable for: researchers, to quickly understand the state of the art and learn which topics need more research; practitioners, to learn about the approaches and challenges that SE entails for AI-based systems; and, educators, to bridge the gap among SE and AI in their curricula.


The AI Index 2021 Annual Report

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Welcome to the fourth edition of the AI Index Report. This year we significantly expanded the amount of data available in the report, worked with a broader set of external organizations to calibrate our data, and deepened our connections with the Stanford Institute for Human-Centered Artificial Intelligence (HAI). The AI Index Report tracks, collates, distills, and visualizes data related to artificial intelligence. Its mission is to provide unbiased, rigorously vetted, and globally sourced data for policymakers, researchers, executives, journalists, and the general public to develop intuitions about the complex field of AI. The report aims to be the most credible and authoritative source for data and insights about AI in the world.



ISA4ML: Training Data-Unaware Imperceptible Security Attacks on Machine Learning Modules of Autonomous Vehicles

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Due to big data analysis ability, machine learning (ML) algorithms are becoming popular for several applications in autonomous vehicles. However, ML algorithms possessinherent security vulnerabilities which increase the demand for robust ML algorithms. Recently, various groups have demonstrated how vulnerabilities in ML can be exploited to perform several security attacks for confidence reduction and random/targeted misclassification, by using the data manipulation techniques. These traditional data manipulation techniques, especially during the training stage, introduce the random visual noise. However, such visual noise can be detected during the attack or testing through noise detection/filtering or human-in-the-loop. In this paper, we propose a novel methodology to automatically generate an "imperceptible attack" by exploiting the back-propagation property of trained deep neural networks (DNNs). Unlike state-of-the-art inference attacks, our methodology does not require any knowledge of the training data set during the attack image generation. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology, we present a case study for traffic sign detection in an autonomous driving use case. We deploy the state-of-the-art VGGNet DNN trained for German Traffic Sign Recognition Benchmarks (GTSRB) datasets. Our experimental results show that the generated attacks are imperceptible in both subjective tests (i.e., visual perception) and objective tests (i.e., without any noticeable change in the correlation and structural similarity index) but still performs successful misclassification attacks.


Machine Learning with scikit-learn and Tensorflow

@machinelearnbot

Machine Learning is one of the most transformative and impactful technologies of our time. From advertising to healthcare, to self-driving cars, it is hard to find an industry that has not been or is not being revolutionized by machine learning. Using the two most popular frameworks, Tensor Flow and Scikit-Learn, this course will show you insightful tools and techniques for building intelligent systems. Using Scikit-learn you will create a Machine Learning project from scratch, and, use the Tensor Flow library to build and train professional neural networks. We will use these frameworks to build a variety of applications for problems such as ad ranking and sentiment classification.


Getting Started with NLP and Deep Learning with Python

@machinelearnbot

As the amount of data continues to grow at an almost incomprehensible rate, being able to understand and process data is becoming a key differentiator for competitive organizations. Machine Learning applications are everywhere, from self-driving cars to spam detection, document search, and trading strategies, to speech recognition. This makes machine learning well-suited to the present-day era of Big Data and Data Science. The main challenge is how to transform data into actionable knowledge. In this course, you'll be introduced to the Natural Processing Language and Recommendation Systems, which help you run multiple algorithms simultaneously.


Teaching Autonomous Driving Using a Modular and Integrated Approach

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Autonomous driving is not one single technology but rather a complex system integrating many technologies, which means that teaching autonomous driving is a challenging task. Indeed, most existing autonomous driving classes focus on one of the technologies involved. This not only fails to provide a comprehensive coverage, but also sets a high entry barrier for students with different technology backgrounds. In this paper, we present a modular, integrated approach to teaching autonomous driving. Specifically, we organize the technologies used in autonomous driving into modules. This is described in the textbook we have developed as well as a series of multimedia online lectures designed to provide technical overview for each module. Then, once the students have understood these modules, the experimental platforms for integration we have developed allow the students to fully understand how the modules interact with each other. To verify this teaching approach, we present three case studies: an introductory class on autonomous driving for students with only a basic technology background; a new session in an existing embedded systems class to demonstrate how embedded system technologies can be applied to autonomous driving; and an industry professional training session to quickly bring up experienced engineers to work in autonomous driving. The results show that students can maintain a high interest level and make great progress by starting with familiar concepts before moving onto other modules.


5 Free Courses for Getting Started in Artificial Intelligence

@machinelearnbot

Don't know where or how to start learning? But learning more about artificial intelligence, and the myriad overlapping and related fields and application domains does not require a PhD. Getting started can be intimidating, but don't be discouraged; check out this motivating and inspirational post, the author of which went from little understanding of machine learning to actively and effectively utilizing techniques in their job within a year. With more and more institutes of higher learning today making the decision to allow course materials to be openly accessible to non-students via the magic of the web, all of a sudden a pseudo-university course experience can be had by almost anyone, anywhere. Have a look at the following free course materials, all of which are appropriate for an introductory level of AI understanding, some of which also cover niche application concepts and material.