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Towards a Framework for Certification of Reliable Autonomous Systems

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The capability and spread of such systems have reached the point where they are beginning to touch much of everyday life. However, regulators grapple with how to deal with autonomous systems, for example how could we certify an Unmanned Aerial System for autonomous use in civilian airspace? We here analyse what is needed in order to provide verified reliable behaviour of an autonomous system, analyse what can be done as the state-of-the-art in automated verification, and propose a roadmap towards developing regulatory guidelines, including articulating challenges to researchers, to engineers, and to regulators. Case studies in seven distinct domains illustrate the article. Keywords: autonomous systems; certification; verification; Artificial Intelligence 1 Introduction Since the dawn of human history, humans have designed, implemented and adopted tools to make it easier to perform tasks, often improving efficiency, safety, or security.


Artificial intelligence needs guardrails

#artificialintelligence

With the recent launch of the website AI.gov as "Artificial Intelligence for the American People," AI will clearly be an integral part of our future. While some may still wonder, "what can AI do for us?," many more may be asking, "what can AI do to us?" given some recent tragic events. The crashes of the Boeing 737 MAXs and Uber and Tesla's self-driving car fatalities point to AI's unintended consequences and highlight how technologists as well as users of AI have both fallen short at making proper guardrails in deploying AI technology. People often think of AI as the panacea that will enable technology to solve our most pressing problems. In that way, AI brings to mind a seeming panacea of an earlier age: aspirin.


Hierarchically Structured Meta-learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In order to learn quickly with few samples, meta-learning utilizes prior knowledge learned from previous tasks. However, a critical challenge in meta-learning is task uncertainty and heterogeneity, which can not be handled via globally sharing knowledge among tasks. In this paper, based on gradient-based meta-learning, we propose a hierarchically structured meta-learning (HSML) algorithm that explicitly tailors the transferable knowledge to different clusters of tasks. Inspired by the way human beings organize knowledge, we resort to a hierarchical task clustering structure to cluster tasks. As a result, the proposed approach not only addresses the challenge via the knowledge customization to different clusters of tasks, but also preserves knowledge generalization among a cluster of similar tasks. To tackle the changing of task relationship, in addition, we extend the hierarchical structure to a continual learning environment. The experimental results show that our approach can achieve state-of-the-art performance in both toy-regression and few-shot image classification problems.


Cockroach 'bots' and rugged delivery drones wow at U.K.'s biggest air show

The Japan Times

LONDON, / CHICAGO – Boffins at U.K. engineering giant Rolls-Royce proudly displayed an array of miniature robots at this year's Farnborough air show, best known as a major marketplace for passenger planes but also a test bed for the aviation industry's wilder imaginings. Designed to speed up engine overhauls, the manufacturer's tiny cockroach-like drones would remove the need for power plants to be detached from aircraft during maintenance work. The "swarming" bots, less than half an inch across, are designed to roam engine turbines in gangs, beaming pictures back to inspection crews after being deposited by so-called "snake" hosts that work their way through the engine. If the bots don't get you the drones will. The biannual air show was awash with unmanned aerial vehicles, or UAVs, ranging from delivery craft that guarantee to gently deposit a parcel by your door to the latest military types intent on blowing stuff up.


Uber's futuristic Mega Skyport flying taxi hubs revealed in stunning concept images

Daily Mail - Science & tech

Uber has teased a look at what its futuristic Skyport flying taxi hubs could be like when UberAir comes to life. At the firm's Elevate Summit in Los Angeles, Uber unveiled elaborate concept images of the Connect system developed by Corgan that could provide infrastructure for the vertical take-off and landing craft. The modular system can essentially be installed anywhere, be it an open site, atop a parking garage, or even on the roof of a skyscraper, according to Corgan. Uber has teased a look at what its futuristic Skyport flying taxi hubs could be like. At the firm's Elevate Summit in Los Angeles, Uber unveiled elaborate concept images of the Connect system developed by Corgan that could provide infrastructure for UberAir Uber has plans to begin its first flight demonstrations as soon as 2020, and begin taking passengers by 2023.


The flying taxi takes off in Cincinnati: Workhorse tests its radical passenger drone

Daily Mail - Science & tech

Surefly, a division of Workhorse, has successfully sent its flying taxi into the air with a person inside it for the first time. The Surefly drone completed a successful manned and untethered test hover outside of Cincinnati. Workhorse is the only company with the necessary FAA experimental certification to test this type of vehicle in the United States, according to the company. Workhorse's flying taxi has taken off with a person inside it for the first time. The Surefly drone was first unveiled at the Paris Air Show in June last year.


Could your next lawyer be a robot? Tech firms making case for artificial intelligence

#artificialintelligence

Early in his career, Andrew Hall, an old-school Miami attorney whose Coconut Grove firm has sued governments from Cuba to Sudan, worked on a lawsuit that lasted three full years. The case was cartoonishly complex. The Vietnam War was sputtering to an end and McDonnell Douglas Aircraft, then America's largest manufacturer of jet airplanes, had defaulted on a contract involving the delivery of 99 jets to Eastern Airlines. There were over a million documents put into evidence and almost 300 witnesses. The massive operation employed so many lawyers, clerks and paralegals, they resembled a legal militia more than a legal team.



Secret spy satellite plummets in botched SpaceX mission

Daily Mail - Science & tech

A top secret billion-dollar spy satellite plummeted into the Indian Ocean after a SpaceX mission over the weekend, but Elon Musk's company has insisted they are not to blame.


Uber says it will bring its flying taxis to Los Angeles in 2020

Los Angeles Times

In just over two years, Uber says it will let commuters soar over Los Angeles' snarled traffic in flying taxis. The ride-hailing firm announced Wednesday that L.A. will be one of the first cities served by UberAir, which it says will begin ferrying passengers across the region in electric aircraft in 2020. Aviation manufacturers such as Embraer, Bell Helicopter, Pipistrel, Aurora Flight Sciences, and Mooney Aviation will supply and pilot the aircraft. Uber will operate the software that passengers use to book a trip and take a commission, much like with Uber rides on the ground. "We're trying to work with cities in the early days who are interested in partnering to make it happen, while knowing that there will be pitfalls along the way," said Jeff Holden, Uber's chief product officer, explaining why the company chose Los Angeles and Dallas as the first cities to test the service.