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Hardware: Overviews


On Quantum Computing and Artificial Intelligence

#artificialintelligence

Mixing quantum computing and Artificial Intelligence (AI) may sound like a new buzzword. However, since quantum computing advances are hinting at profound changes in the very notions of computation, it is natural to reexamine various branches of computer science in the light of these disruptions. As usual, before entering the quantum realm, it is important to get an overview of the classical world. Artificial Intelligence is difficult to define. Probably because intelligence, by itself, is difficult to define.


A Survey on Edge Intelligence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Edge intelligence refers to a set of connected systems and devices for data collection, caching, processing, and analysis in locations close to where data is captured based on artificial intelligence. The aim of edge intelligence is to enhance the quality and speed of data processing and protect the privacy and security of the data. Although recently emerged, spanning the period from 2011 to now, this field of research has shown explosive growth over the past five years. In this paper, we present a thorough and comprehensive survey on the literature surrounding edge intelligence. We first identify four fundamental components of edge intelligence, namely edge caching, edge training, edge inference, and edge offloading, based on theoretical and practical results pertaining to proposed and deployed systems. We then aim for a systematic classification of the state of the solutions by examining research results and observations for each of the four components and present a taxonomy that includes practical problems, adopted techniques, and application goals. For each category, we elaborate, compare and analyse the literature from the perspectives of adopted techniques, objectives, performance, advantages and drawbacks, etc. This survey article provides a comprehensive introduction to edge intelligence and its application areas. In addition, we summarise the development of the emerging research field and the current state-of-the-art and discuss the important open issues and possible theoretical and technical solutions.


FLAME: A Self-Adaptive Auto-labeling System for Heterogeneous Mobile Processors

arXiv.org Machine Learning

How to accurately and efficiently label data on a mobile device is critical for the success of training machine learning models on mobile devices. Auto-labeling data on mobile devices is challenging, because data is usually incrementally generated and there is possibility of having unknown labels. Furthermore, the rich hardware heterogeneity on mobile devices creates challenges on efficiently executing auto-labeling workloads. In this paper, we introduce Flame, an auto-labeling system that can label non-stationary data with unknown labels. Flame includes a runtime system that efficiently schedules and executes auto-labeling workloads on heterogeneous mobile processors. Evaluating Flame with eight datasets on a smartphone, we demonstrate that Flame enables auto-labeling with high labeling accuracy and high performance.


CSM-NN: Current Source Model Based Logic Circuit Simulation -- A Neural Network Approach

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The miniaturization of transistors down to 5nm and beyond, plus the increasing complexity of integrated circuits, significantly aggravate short channel effects, and demand analysis and optimization of more design corners and modes. Simulators need to model output variables related to circuit timing, power, noise, etc., which exhibit nonlinear behavior. The existing simulation and sign-off tools, based on a combination of closed-form expressions and lookup tables are either inaccurate or slow, when dealing with circuits with more than billions of transistors. In this work, we present CSM-NN, a scalable simulation framework with optimized neural network structures and processing algorithms. CSM-NN is aimed at optimizing the simulation time by accounting for the latency of the required memory query and computation, given the underlying CPU and GPU parallel processing capabilities. Experimental results show that CSM-NN reduces the simulation time by up to $6\times$ compared to a state-of-the-art current source model based simulator running on a CPU. This speedup improves by up to $15\times$ when running on a GPU. CSM-NN also provides high accuracy levels, with less than $2\%$ error, compared to HSPICE.


Parametric Probabilistic Quantum Memory

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Probabilistic Quantum Memory (PQM) is a data structure that computes the distance from a binary input to all binary patterns stored in superposition on the memory. This data structure allows the development of heuristics to speed up artificial neural networks architecture selection. In this work, we propose an improved parametric version of the PQM to perform pattern classification, and we also present a PQM quantum circuit suitable for Noisy Intermediate Scale Quantum (NISQ) computers. We present a classical evaluation of a parametric PQM network classifier on public benchmark datasets. We also perform experiments to verify the viability of PQM on a 5-qubit quantum computer. Introduction Quantum Computing is a computational paradigm that has been harvesting increasing attention for decades now. Several quantum algorithms have time advantages over their best known classical counterparts [1, 2, 3, 4]. The current advances in quantum hardware are bringing us to the era of Noisy Intermediate-Scale Quantum (NISQ) computers [5]. The quest for quantum supremacy is the search for an efficient solution of a task in a quantum computer that current classical computers are not able to efficiently solve. Some authors argue that given the current state of the art, we will achieve quantum supremacy in the next few years [6]. One of the approaches to achieve this supremacy and to expand the potential applications of quantum computers is through quantum machine learning [7]. Machine learning (ML) [8] aims at developing automated ways for computers to learn a specific task from a given set of data samples.


Quantum Computing based Hybrid Solution Strategies for Large-scale Discrete-Continuous Optimization Problems

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Quantum computing (QC) has gained popularity due to its unique capabilities that are quite different from that of classical computers in terms of speed and methods of operations. This paper proposes hybrid models and methods that effectively leverage the complementary strengths of deterministic algorithms and QC techniques to overcome combinatorial complexity for solving large-scale mixed-integer programming problems. Four applications, namely the molecular conformation problem, job-shop scheduling problem, manufacturing cell formation problem, and the vehicle routing problem, are specifically addressed. Large-scale instances of these application problems across multiple scales ranging from molecular design to logistics optimization are computationally challenging for deterministic optimization algorithms on classical computers. To address the computational challenges, hybrid QC-based algorithms are proposed and extensive computational experimental results are presented to demonstrate their applicability and efficiency. The proposed QC-based solution strategies enjoy high computational efficiency in terms of solution quality and computation time, by utilizing the unique features of both classical and quantum computers.


Bayesian deep learning and near-term quantum computers: A cautionary tale in quantum machine learning

#artificialintelligence

This blog post is an overview of quantum machine learning written by the author of the paper Bayesian deep learning on a quantum computer. In it, we explore the application of machine learning in the quantum computing space. The authors of this paper hope that the results of the experiment help influence the future development of quantum machine learning. With no shortage of research problems, education programs, and demand for talent, machine learning is one of the hottest topics in technology today. Parallel to the success of learning algorithms, the development of quantum computing hardware has accelerated over the last few years.


Evaluating Ising Processing Units with Integer Programming

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The recent emergence of novel computational devices, such as adiabatic quantum computers, CMOS annealers, and optical parametric oscillators, present new opportunities for hybrid-optimization algorithms that are hardware accelerated by these devices. In this work, we propose the idea of an Ising processing unit as a computational abstraction for reasoning about these emerging devices. The challenges involved in using and benchmarking these devices are presented and commercial mixed integer programming solvers are proposed as a valuable tool for the validation of these disparate hardware platforms. The proposed validation methodology is demonstrated on a D-Wave 2X adiabatic quantum computer, one example of an Ising processing unit. The computational results demonstrate that the D-Wave hardware consistently produces high-quality solutions and suggests that as IPU technology matures it could become a valuable co-processor in hybrid-optimization algorithms.


A New Golden Age for Computer Architecture

Communications of the ACM

We began our Turing Lecture June 4, 201811 with a review of computer architecture since the 1960s. In addition to that review, here, we highlight current challenges and identify future opportunities, projecting another golden age for the field of computer architecture in the next decade, much like the 1980s when we did the research that led to our award, delivering gains in cost, energy, and security, as well as performance. "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it."--George Software talks to hardware through a vocabulary called an instruction set architecture (ISA). By the early 1960s, IBM had four incompatible lines of computers, each with its own ISA, software stack, I/O system, and market niche--targeting small business, large business, scientific, and real time, respectively. IBM engineers, including ACM A.M. Turing Award laureate Fred Brooks, Jr., thought they could create a single ISA that would efficiently unify all four of these ISA bases. They needed a technical solution for how computers as inexpensive as those with 8-bit data paths and as fast as those with 64-bit data paths could share a single ISA. The data paths are the "brawn" of the processor in that they perform the arithmetic but are relatively easy to "widen" or "narrow." The greatest challenge for computer designers then and now is the "brains" of the processor--the control hardware. Inspired by software programming, computing pioneer and Turing laureate Maurice Wilkes proposed how to simplify control. Control was specified as a two-dimensional array he called a "control store." Each column of the array corresponded to one control line, each row was a microinstruction, and writing microinstructions was called microprogramming.39 A control store contains an ISA interpreter written using microinstructions, so execution of a conventional instruction takes several microinstructions. The control store was implemented through memory, which was much less costly than logic gates. The table here lists four models of the new System/360 ISA IBM announced April 7, 1964. The data paths vary by a factor of 8, memory capacity by a factor of 16, clock rate by nearly 4, performance by 50, and cost by nearly 6.


Measurement-based adaptation protocol with quantum reinforcement learning in a Rigetti quantum computer

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We present an experimental realization of a measurement-based adaptation protocol with quantum reinforcement learning in a Rigetti cloud quantum computer. The experiment in this few-qubit superconducting chip faithfully reproduces the theoretical proposal, setting the first steps towards a semiautonomous quantum agent. This experiment paves the way towards quantum reinforcement learning with superconducting circuits.