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Speech Recognition: Overviews


Visually grounded models of spoken language: A survey of datasets, architectures and evaluation techniques

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This survey provides an overview of the evolution of visually grounded models of spoken language over the last 20 years. Such models are inspired by the observation that when children pick up a language, they rely on a wide range of indirect and noisy clues, crucially including signals from the visual modality co-occurring with spoken utterances. Several fields have made important contributions to this approach to modeling or mimicking the process of learning language: Machine Learning, Natural Language and Speech Processing, Computer Vision and Cognitive Science. The current paper brings together these contributions in order to provide a useful introduction and overview for practitioners in all these areas. We discuss the central research questions addressed, the timeline of developments, and the datasets which enabled much of this work. We then summarize the main modeling architectures and offer an exhaustive overview of the evaluation metrics and analysis techniques.


Platform for Situated Intelligence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We introduce Platform for Situated Intelligence, an open-source framework created to support the rapid development and study of multimodal, integrative-AI systems. The framework provides infrastructure for sensing, fusing, and making inferences from temporal streams of data across different modalities, a set of tools that enable visualization and debugging, and an ecosystem of components that encapsulate a variety of perception and processing technologies. These assets jointly provide the means for rapidly constructing and refining multimodal, integrative-AI systems, while retaining the efficiency and performance characteristics required for deployment in open-world settings.


Automatic Speaker Independent Dysarthric Speech Intelligibility Assessment System

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Dysarthria is a condition which hampers the ability of an individual to control the muscles that play a major role in speech delivery. The loss of fine control over muscles that assist the movement of lips, vocal chords, tongue and diaphragm results in abnormal speech delivery. One can assess the severity level of dysarthria by analyzing the intelligibility of speech spoken by an individual. Continuous intelligibility assessment helps speech language pathologists not only study the impact of medication but also allows them to plan personalized therapy. It helps the clinicians immensely if the intelligibility assessment system is reliable, automatic, simple for (a) patients to undergo and (b) clinicians to interpret. Lack of availability of dysarthric data has resulted in development of speaker dependent automatic intelligibility assessment systems which requires patients to speak a large number of utterances. In this paper, we propose (a) a cost minimization procedure to select an optimal (small) number of utterances that need to be spoken by the dysarthric patient, (b) four different speaker independent intelligibility assessment systems which require the patient to speak a small number of words, and (c) the assessment score is close to the perceptual score that the Speech Language Pathologist (SLP) can relate to. The need for small number of utterances to be spoken by the patient and the score being relatable to the SLP benefits both the dysarthric patient and the clinician from usability perspective.


The AI Index 2021 Annual Report

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Welcome to the fourth edition of the AI Index Report. This year we significantly expanded the amount of data available in the report, worked with a broader set of external organizations to calibrate our data, and deepened our connections with the Stanford Institute for Human-Centered Artificial Intelligence (HAI). The AI Index Report tracks, collates, distills, and visualizes data related to artificial intelligence. Its mission is to provide unbiased, rigorously vetted, and globally sourced data for policymakers, researchers, executives, journalists, and the general public to develop intuitions about the complex field of AI. The report aims to be the most credible and authoritative source for data and insights about AI in the world.


Empowering Things with Intelligence: A Survey of the Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities in Artificial Intelligence of Things

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In the Internet of Things (IoT) era, billions of sensors and devices collect and process data from the environment, transmit them to cloud centers, and receive feedback via the internet for connectivity and perception. However, transmitting massive amounts of heterogeneous data, perceiving complex environments from these data, and then making smart decisions in a timely manner are difficult. Artificial intelligence (AI), especially deep learning, is now a proven success in various areas including computer vision, speech recognition, and natural language processing. AI introduced into the IoT heralds the era of artificial intelligence of things (AIoT). This paper presents a comprehensive survey on AIoT to show how AI can empower the IoT to make it faster, smarter, greener, and safer. Specifically, we briefly present the AIoT architecture in the context of cloud computing, fog computing, and edge computing. Then, we present progress in AI research for IoT from four perspectives: perceiving, learning, reasoning, and behaving. Next, we summarize some promising applications of AIoT that are likely to profoundly reshape our world. Finally, we highlight the challenges facing AIoT and some potential research opportunities.


Artificial Intelligence, speech and language processing approaches to monitoring Alzheimer's Disease: a systematic review

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Language is a valuable source of clinical information in Alzheimer's Disease, as it declines concurrently with neurodegeneration. Consequently, speech and language data have been extensively studied in connection with its diagnosis. This paper summarises current findings on the use of artificial intelligence, speech and language processing to predict cognitive decline in the context of Alzheimer's Disease, detailing current research procedures, highlighting their limitations and suggesting strategies to address them. We conducted a systematic review of original research between 2000 and 2019, registered in PROSPERO (reference CRD42018116606). An interdisciplinary search covered six databases on engineering (ACM and IEEE), psychology (PsycINFO), medicine (PubMed and Embase) and Web of Science. Bibliographies of relevant papers were screened until December 2019. From 3,654 search results 51 articles were selected against the eligibility criteria. Four tables summarise their findings: study details (aim, population, interventions, comparisons, methods and outcomes), data details (size, type, modalities, annotation, balance, availability and language of study), methodology (pre-processing, feature generation, machine learning, evaluation and results) and clinical applicability (research implications, clinical potential, risk of bias and strengths/limitations). While promising results are reported across nearly all 51 studies, very few have been implemented in clinical research or practice. We concluded that the main limitations of the field are poor standardisation, limited comparability of results, and a degree of disconnect between study aims and clinical applications. Attempts to close these gaps should support translation of future research into clinical practice.


Building A User-Centric and Content-Driven Socialbot

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

To build Sounding Board, we develop a system architecture that is capable of accommodating dialog strategies that we designed for socialbot conversations. The architecture consists of a multi-dimensional language understanding module for analyzing user utterances, a hierarchical dialog management framework for dialog context tracking and complex dialog control, and a language generation process that realizes the response plan and makes adjustments for speech synthesis. Additionally, we construct a new knowledge base to power the socialbot by collecting social chat content from a variety of sources. An important contribution of the system is the synergy between the knowledge base and the dialog management, i.e., the use of a graph structure to organize the knowledge base that makes dialog control very efficient in bringing related content to the discussion. Using the data collected from Sounding Board during the competition, we carry out in-depth analyses of socialbot conversations and user ratings which provide valuable insights in evaluation methods for socialbots. We additionally investigate a new approach for system evaluation and diagnosis that allows scoring individual dialog segments in the conversation. Finally, observing that socialbots suffer from the issue of shallow conversations about topics associated with unstructured data, we study the problem of enabling extended socialbot conversations grounded on a document. To bring together machine reading and dialog control techniques, a graph-based document representation is proposed, together with methods for automatically constructing the graph. Using the graph-based representation, dialog control can be carried out by retrieving nodes or moving along edges in the graph. To illustrate the usage, a mixed-initiative dialog strategy is designed for socialbot conversations on news articles.


Deep Neural Networks for Automatic Speech Processing: A Survey from Large Corpora to Limited Data

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Most state-of-the-art speech systems are using Deep Neural Networks (DNNs). Those systems require a large amount of data to be learned. Hence, learning state-of-the-art frameworks on under-resourced speech languages/problems is a difficult task. Problems could be the limited amount of data for impaired speech. Furthermore, acquiring more data and/or expertise is time-consuming and expensive. In this paper we position ourselves for the following speech processing tasks: Automatic Speech Recognition, speaker identification and emotion recognition. To assess the problem of limited data, we firstly investigate state-of-the-art Automatic Speech Recognition systems as it represents the hardest tasks (due to the large variability in each language). Next, we provide an overview of techniques and tasks requiring fewer data. In the last section we investigate few-shot techniques as we interpret under-resourced speech as a few-shot problem. In that sense we propose an overview of few-shot techniques and perspectives of using such techniques for the focused speech problems in this survey. It occurs that the reviewed techniques are not well adapted for large datasets. Nevertheless, some promising results from the literature encourage the usage of such techniques for speech processing.


More Than Half of Consumers Want to Use Voice Assistants for Healthcare - The Ritz Herald

#artificialintelligence

Orbita, Inc., provider of healthcare's most powerful conversational AI platform, today announced the release of the Voice Assistant Consumer Adoption Report for Healthcare 2019. To develop this report, Orbita sponsored independent research by Voicebot.ai, Based on a survey of 1,004 U.S. adults, the report includes these key highlights: The 40-page report includes 20 charts, ten case studies highlighting today's real-world voice-powered healthcare solutions, and 35 pages of analysis. It is available at no cost for download at voicebot.ai. "This report is the first comprehensive analysis that considers how consumers are using voice assistants today for healthcare-related needs, explores features they'd like to see in the future, and highlights how provider and technology organizations have responded to the opportunity thus far," said Orbita President Nathan Treloar.


A 20-Year Community Roadmap for Artificial Intelligence Research in the US

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Decades of research in artificial intelligence (AI) have produced formidable technologies that are providing immense benefit to industry, government, and society. AI systems can now translate across multiple languages, identify objects in images and video, streamline manufacturing processes, and control cars. The deployment of AI systems has not only created a trillion-dollar industry that is projected to quadruple in three years, but has also exposed the need to make AI systems fair, explainable, trustworthy, and secure. Future AI systems will rightfully be expected to reason effectively about the world in which they (and people) operate, handling complex tasks and responsibilities effectively and ethically, engaging in meaningful communication, and improving their awareness through experience. Achieving the full potential of AI technologies poses research challenges that require a radical transformation of the AI research enterprise, facilitated by significant and sustained investment. These are the major recommendations of a recent community effort coordinated by the Computing Community Consortium and the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence to formulate a Roadmap for AI research and development over the next two decades.