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Expert Systems: Overviews


Artificial Intelligence Research at General Electric

AI Magazine

General Electric is engaged in a broad range of research and development activities in artificial intelligence, with the dual objectives of improving the productivity of its internal operations and of enhancing future products and services in its aerospace, industrial, aircraft engine, commercial, and service sectors. Many of the applications projected for AI within GE will require significant advances in the state of the art in advanced inference, formal logic, and architectures for real-time systems. New software tools for creating expert systems are needed to expedite the construction of knowledge bases. Further, new application domains such as computer -aided design (CAD), computer- aided manufacturing (CAM), and image understanding based on formal logic require novel concepts in knowledge representation and inference beyond the capabilities of current production rule systems. Fundamental research in artificial intelligence is concentrated at Corporate Research and Development (CR&D), with advanced development and applications pursued in parallel efforts by operating departments.


Unification-based Reconstruction of Explanations for Science Questions

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The paper presents a framework to reconstruct explanations for multiple choices science questions through explanation-centred corpora. Building upon the notion of unification in science, the framework ranks explanatory facts with respect to question and candidate answer by leveraging a combination of two different scores: (a) A Relevance Score (RS) that represents the extent to which a given fact is specific to the question; (b) A Unification Score (US) that takes into account the explanatory power of a fact, determined according to its frequency in explanations for similar questions. An extensive evaluation of the framework is performed on the Worldtree corpus, adopting IR weighting schemes for its implementation. The following findings are presented: (1) The proposed approach achieves competitive results when compared to state-of-the-art Transformers, yet possessing the property of being scalable to large explanatory knowledge bases; (2) The combined model significantly outperforms IR baselines ( 7.8/8.4 MAP), confirming the complementary aspects of relevance and unification score; (3) The constructed explanations can support downstream models for answer prediction, improving the accuracy of BERT for multiple choices QA on both ARC easy ( 6.92%) and challenge ( 15.69%) questions.


From Statistical Relational to Neuro-Symbolic Artificial Intelligence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Neuro-symbolic and statistical relational artificial intelligence both integrate frameworks for learning with logical reasoning. This survey identifies several parallels across seven different dimensions between these two fields. These cannot only be used to characterize and position neuro-symbolic artificial intelligence approaches but also to identify a number of directions for further research.


Foundations of Explainable Knowledge-Enabled Systems

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Explainability has been an important goal since the early days of Artificial Intelligence. Several approaches for producing explanations have been developed. However, many of these approaches were tightly coupled with the capabilities of the artificial intelligence systems at the time. With the proliferation of AI-enabled systems in sometimes critical settings, there is a need for them to be explainable to end-users and decision-makers. We present a historical overview of explainable artificial intelligence systems, with a focus on knowledge-enabled systems, spanning the expert systems, cognitive assistants, semantic applications, and machine learning domains. Additionally, borrowing from the strengths of past approaches and identifying gaps needed to make explanations user- and context-focused, we propose new definitions for explanations and explainable knowledge-enabled systems.


Directions for Explainable Knowledge-Enabled Systems

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Interest in the field of Explainable Artificial Intelligence has been growing for decades, and has accelerated recently. As Artificial Intelligence models have become more complex, and often more opaque, with the incorporation of complex machine learning techniques, explainability has become more critical. Recently, researchers have been investigating and tackling explainability with a user-centric focus, looking for explanations to consider trustworthiness, comprehensibility, explicit provenance, and context-awareness. In this chapter, we leverage our survey of explanation literature in Artificial Intelligence and closely related fields and use these past efforts to generate a set of explanation types that we feel reflect the expanded needs of explanation for today's artificial intelligence applications. We define each type and provide an example question that would motivate the need for this style of explanation. We believe this set of explanation types will help future system designers in their generation and prioritization of requirements and further help generate explanations that are better aligned to users' and situational needs.


Health State Estimation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Life's most valuable asset is health. Continuously understanding the state of our health and modeling how it evolves is essential if we wish to improve it. Given the opportunity that people live with more data about their life today than any other time in history, the challenge rests in interweaving this data with the growing body of knowledge to compute and model the health state of an individual continually. This dissertation presents an approach to build a personal model and dynamically estimate the health state of an individual by fusing multi-modal data and domain knowledge. The system is stitched together from four essential abstraction elements: 1. the events in our life, 2. the layers of our biological systems (from molecular to an organism), 3. the functional utilities that arise from biological underpinnings, and 4. how we interact with these utilities in the reality of daily life. Connecting these four elements via graph network blocks forms the backbone by which we instantiate a digital twin of an individual. Edges and nodes in this graph structure are then regularly updated with learning techniques as data is continuously digested. Experiments demonstrate the use of dense and heterogeneous real-world data from a variety of personal and environmental sensors to monitor individual cardiovascular health state. State estimation and individual modeling is the fundamental basis to depart from disease-oriented approaches to a total health continuum paradigm. Precision in predicting health requires understanding state trajectory. By encasing this estimation within a navigational approach, a systematic guidance framework can plan actions to transition a current state towards a desired one. This work concludes by presenting this framework of combining the health state and personal graph model to perpetually plan and assist us in living life towards our goals.


Towards a Framework for Visual Intelligence in Service Robotics: Epistemic Requirements and Gap Analysis

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

A key capability required by service robots operating in real-world, dynamic environments is that of Visual Intelligence, i.e., the ability to use their vision system, reasoning components and background knowledge to make sense of their environment. In this paper, we analyze the epistemic requirements for Visual Intelligence, both in a top-down fashion, using existing frameworks for human-like Visual Intelligence in the literature, and from the bottom up, based on the errors emerging from object recognition trials in a real-world robotic scenario. Finally, we use these requirements to evaluate current knowledge bases for Service Robotics and to identify gaps in the support they provide for Visual Intelligence. These gaps provide the basis of a research agenda for developing more effective knowledge representations for Visual Intelligence.


Context-aware Non-linear and Neural Attentive Knowledge-based Models for Grade Prediction

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Grade prediction for future courses not yet taken by students is important as it can help them and their advisers during the process of course selection as well as for designing personalized degree plans and modifying them based on their performance. One of the successful approaches for accurately predicting a student's grades in future courses is Cumulative Knowledge-based Regression Models (CKRM). CKRM learns shallow linear models that predict a student's grades as the similarity between his/her knowledge state and the target course. However, prior courses taken by a student can have \black{different contributions when estimating a student's knowledge state and towards each target course, which} cannot be captured by linear models. Moreover, CKRM and other grade prediction methods ignore the effect of concurrently-taken courses on a student's performance in a target course. In this paper, we propose context-aware non-linear and neural attentive models that can potentially better estimate a student's knowledge state from his/her prior course information, as well as model the interactions between a target course and concurrent courses. Compared to the competing methods, our experiments on a large real-world dataset consisting of more than $1.5$M grades show the effectiveness of the proposed models in accurately predicting students' grades. Moreover, the attention weights learned by the neural attentive model can be helpful in better designing their degree plans.


Automatic Machine Learning Derived from Scholarly Big Data

arXiv.org Machine Learning

One of the challenging aspects of applying machine learning is the need to identify the algorithms that will perform best for a given dataset. This process can be difficult, time consuming and often requires a great deal of domain knowledge. We present Sommelier, an expert system for recommending the machine learning algorithms that should be applied on a previously unseen dataset. Sommelier is based on word embedding representations of the domain knowledge extracted from a large corpus of academic publications. When presented with a new dataset and its problem description, Sommelier leverages a recommendation model trained on the word embedding representation to provide a ranked list of the most relevant algorithms to be used on the dataset. We demonstrate Sommelier's effectiveness by conducting an extensive evaluation on 121 publicly available datasets and 53 classification algorithms. The top algorithms recommended for each dataset by Sommelier were able to achieve on average 97.7% of the optimal accuracy of all surveyed algorithms.


The Next Decade in AI: Four Steps Towards Robust Artificial Intelligence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Recent research in artificial intelligence and machine learning has largely emphasized general-purpose learning and ever-larger training sets and more and more compute. In contrast, I propose a hybrid, knowledge-driven, reasoning-based approach, centered around cognitive models, that could provide the substrate for a richer, more robust AI than is currently possible.