For the purpose of this narrative review, we searched PubMed and MEDLINE databases with no date restriction using search terms related to AI and medicine and cardiology subspecialties. Articles were reviewed and selected for inclusion on the basis of relevance. This article highlights that the role of ML in cardiovascular medicine is rapidly emerging, and mounting evidence indicates it will power the new tools that drive the field. Among other uses, AI has been deployed to interpret echocardiograms, to automatically identify heart rhythms from an ECG, to uniquely identify an individual using the ECG as a biometric signal, and to detect the presence of heart disease such as left ventricular dysfunction from the surface ECG.6x6Attia, Z.I., Kapa, S., Lopez-Jimenez, F. et al.
It is becoming evident each and every day that machine learning algorithms are achieving impressive results in domains in which it is hard to specify a set of rules for their procedures. Examples of this phenomenon include industries like finance [49, 5], transportation , education [42, 22], health care  and tasks like image recognition [41, 16, 17], machine translation [43, 7], and speech recognition [46, 24, 53, 50]. Motivated by the ease of adoption and the increased availability of affordable computational power (especially cloud computing services), machine learning algorithms are being explored in almost every commercial application and are offering great promise for the future of automation. Facing such a vast adoption across multiple disciplines, some of their weaknesses are exposed and sometimes exploited by malicious actors. For example, a common challenge to these algorithms is "generalization" or "robustness", which is the ability of the algorithm to maintain performance whenever dealing with data coming from a different distribution with which it was trained. For a long period of time, the sole focus of machine learning researchers was improving the performance of machine learning systems (true positive rate, accuracy, etc.). Nowadays, the robustness of these systems can no longer be ignored; many of them have been shown to be highly vulnerable to intentional adversarial attacks.
Time series classification (TSC) is a challenging task that attracted many researchers in the last few years. One main challenge in TSC is the diversity of domains where time series data come from. Thus, there is no "one model that fits all" in TSC. Some algorithms are very accurate in classifying a specific type of time series when the whole series is considered, while some only target the existence/non-existence of specific patterns/shapelets. Yet other techniques focus on the frequency of occurrences of discriminating patterns/features. This paper presents a new classification technique that addresses the inherent diversity problem in TSC using a nature-inspired method. The technique is stimulated by how flies look at the world through "compound eyes" that are made up of thousands of lenses, called ommatidia. Each ommatidium is an eye with its own lens, and thousands of them together create a broad field of vision. The developed technique similarly uses different lenses and representations to look at the time series, and then combines them for broader visibility. These lenses have been created through hyper-parameterisation of symbolic representations (Piecewise Aggregate and Fourier approximations). The algorithm builds a random forest for each lens, then performs soft dynamic voting for classifying new instances using the most confident eyes, i.e, forests. We evaluate the new technique, coined Co-eye, using the recently released extended version of UCR archive, containing more than 100 datasets across a wide range of domains. The results show the benefits of bringing together different perspectives reflecting on the accuracy and robustness of Co-eye in comparison to other state-of-the-art techniques.
Network method of moments arXiv:1202.5101 is an important tool for nonparametric network inferences. However, there has been little investigation on accurate descriptions of the sampling distributions of network moment statistics. In this paper, we present the first higher-order accurate approximation to the sampling CDF of a studentized network moment by Edgeworth expansion. In sharp contrast to classical literature on noiseless U-statistics, we showed that the Edgeworth expansion of a network moment statistic as a noisy U-statistic can achieve higher-order accuracy without non-lattice or smoothness assumptions but just requiring weak regularity conditions. Behind this result is our surprising discovery that the two typically-hated factors in network analysis, namely, sparsity and edge-wise observational errors, jointly play a blessing role, contributing a crucial self-smoothing effect in the network moment statistic and making it analytically tractable. Our assumptions match the minimum requirements in related literature. For practitioners, our empirical Edgeworth expansion is highly accurate and computationally efficient. It is also easy to implement. These were demonstrated by comprehensive simulation studies. We showcase three applications of our results in network inference. We proved, to our knowledge, for the first time that some network bootstraps enjoy higher-order accuracy, and provided theoretical guidance for tuning network sub-sampling. We also derived a one-sample test and Cornish-Fisher confidence interval for any given moment, both with analytical formulation and explicit error rates.
Concept drift describes unforeseeable changes in the underlying distribution of streaming data over time. Concept drift research involves the development of methodologies and techniques for drift detection, understanding and adaptation. Data analysis has revealed that machine learning in a concept drift environment will result in poor learning results if the drift is not addressed. To help researchers identify which research topics are significant and how to apply related techniques in data analysis tasks, it is necessary that a high quality, instructive review of current research developments and trends in the concept drift field is conducted. In addition, due to the rapid development of concept drift in recent years, the methodologies of learning under concept drift have become noticeably systematic, unveiling a framework which has not been mentioned in literature. This paper reviews over 130 high quality publications in concept drift related research areas, analyzes up-to-date developments in methodologies and techniques, and establishes a framework of learning under concept drift including three main components: concept drift detection, concept drift understanding, and concept drift adaptation. This paper lists and discusses 10 popular synthetic datasets and 14 publicly available benchmark datasets used for evaluating the performance of learning algorithms aiming at handling concept drift. Also, concept drift related research directions are covered and discussed. By providing state-of-the-art knowledge, this survey will directly support researchers in their understanding of research developments in the field of learning under concept drift.
Analyzing the ever-increasing volume of posts on social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter requires improved information processing methods for profiling authorship. Document classification is central to this task, but the performance of traditional supervised classifiers has degraded as the volume of social media has increased. This paper addresses this problem in the context of gender detection through ensemble classification that employs multi-model deep learning architectures to generate specialized understanding from different feature spaces.
Local learning methods are a popular class of machine learning algorithms. The basic idea for the entire cadre is to choose some non-local model family, to train many of them on small sections of neighboring data, and then to `stitch' the resulting models together in some way. Due to the limits of constraining a training dataset to a small neighborhood, research on locally-learned models has largely been restricted to simple model families. Also, since simple model families have no complex structure by design, this has limited use of the individual local models to predictive tasks. We hypothesize that, using a sufficiently complex local model family, various properties of the individual local models, such as their learned parameters, can be used as features for further learning. This dissertation improves upon the current state of research and works toward establishing this hypothesis by investigating algorithms for localization of more complex model families and by studying their applications beyond predictions as a feature extraction mechanism. We summarize this generic technique of using local models as a feature extraction step with the term ``local model feature transformations.'' In this document, we extend the local modeling paradigm to Gaussian processes, orthogonal quadric models and word embedding models, and extend the existing theory for localized linear classifiers. We then demonstrate applications of local model feature transformations to epileptic event classification from EEG readings, activity monitoring via chest accelerometry, 3D surface reconstruction, 3D point cloud segmentation, handwritten digit classification and event detection from Twitter feeds.
Real-world problems such as landmine detection require multiple sources of information to reduce the uncertainty of decision-making. A novel approach to solve these problems includes distributed systems, as presented in this work based on hardware and software multi-agent systems. To achieve a high rate of landmine detection, we evaluate the performance of a trained system over the distribution of samples between training and validation sets. Additionally, a general explanation of the data set is provided, presenting the samples gathered by a cooperative multi-agent system developed for detecting improvised explosive devices. The results show that input samples affect the performance of the output decisions, and a decision-making system can be less sensitive to sensor noise with intelligent systems obtained from a diverse and suitably organised training set.
Applications based on Machine Learning models have now become an indispensable part of the everyday life and the professional world. A critical question then recently arised among the population: Do algorithmic decisions convey any type of discrimination against specific groups of population or minorities? In this paper, we show the importance of understanding how a bias can be introduced into automatic decisions. We first present a mathematical framework for the fair learning problem, specifically in the binary classification setting. We then propose to quantify the presence of bias by using the standard Disparate Impact index on the real and well-known Adult income data set. Finally, we check the performance of different approaches aiming to reduce the bias in binary classification outcomes. Importantly, we show that some intuitive methods are ineffective. This sheds light on the fact trying to make fair machine learning models may be a particularly challenging task, in particular when the training observations contain a bias.
Anomaly detection for time-series data has been an important research field for a long time. Seminal work on anomaly detection methods has been focussing on statistical approaches. In recent years an increasing number of machine learning algorithms have been developed to detect anomalies on time-series. Subsequently, researchers tried to improve these techniques using (deep) neural networks. In the light of the increasing number of anomaly detection methods, the body of research lacks a broad comparative evaluation of statistical, machine learning and deep learning methods. This paper studies 20 univariate anomaly detection methods from the all three categories. The evaluation is conducted on publicly available datasets, which serve as benchmarks for time-series anomaly detection. By analyzing the accuracy of each method as well as the computation time of the algorithms, we provide a thorough insight about the performance of these anomaly detection approaches, alongside some general notion of which method is suited for a certain type of data.