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Directed Networks: Overviews

Beginners Guide to Naive Bayes Algorithm in Python


Naive Bayes is a classification algorithm that works based on the Bayes theorem. Before explaining about Naive Bayes, first, we should discuss Bayes Theorem. Bayes theorem is used to find the probability of a hypothesis with given evidence. In this, using Bayes theorem we can find the probability of A, given that B occurred. A is the hypothesis and B is the evidence.

Neurosymbolic AI: The 3rd Wave Artificial Intelligence

Current advances in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) have achieved unprecedented impact across research communities and industry. Nevertheless, concerns about trust, safety, interpretability and accountability of AI were raised by influential thinkers. Many have identified the need for well-founded knowledge representation and reasoning to be integrated with deep learning and for sound explainability. Neural-symbolic computing has been an active area of research for many years seeking to bring together robust learning in neural networks with reasoning and explainability via symbolic representations for network models. In this paper, we relate recent and early research results in neurosymbolic AI with the objective of identifying the key ingredients of the next wave of AI systems. We focus on research that integrates in a principled way neural network-based learning with symbolic knowledge representation and logical reasoning. The insights provided by 20 years of neural-symbolic computing are shown to shed new light onto the increasingly prominent role of trust, safety, interpretability and accountability of AI. We also identify promising directions and challenges for the next decade of AI research from the perspective of neural-symbolic systems.

Learning Energy-Based Models by Diffusion Recovery Likelihood Machine Learning

While energy-based models (EBMs) exhibit a number of desirable properties, training and sampling on high-dimensional datasets remains challenging. Inspired by recent progress on diffusion probabilistic models, we present a diffusion recovery likelihood method to tractably learn and sample from a sequence of EBMs trained on increasingly noisy versions of a dataset. Each EBM is trained by maximizing the recovery likelihood: the conditional probability of the data at a certain noise level given their noisy versions at a higher noise level. The recovery likelihood objective is more tractable than the marginal likelihood objective, since it only requires MCMC sampling from a relatively concentrated conditional distribution. Moreover, we show that this estimation method is theoretically consistent: it learns the correct conditional and marginal distributions at each noise level, given sufficient data. After training, synthesized images can be generated efficiently by a sampling process that initializes from a spherical Gaussian distribution and progressively samples the conditional distributions at decreasingly lower noise levels. Our method generates high fidelity samples on various image datasets. On unconditional CIFAR-10 our method achieves FID 9.60 and inception score 8.58, superior to the majority of GANs. Moreover, we demonstrate that unlike previous work on EBMs, our long-run MCMC samples from the conditional distributions do not diverge and still represent realistic images, allowing us to accurately estimate the normalized density of data even for high-dimensional datasets.

Active Learning: Problem Settings and Recent Developments Machine Learning

Supervised learning is a typical problem setting for machine learning that approximates the relationship between the input and output based on a given sets of input and output data. The accuracy of the approximation can be increased using more input and output data to build the model; however, obtaining the appropriate output for the input can be costly. A classic example is the crossbreeding of plants. The environmental conditions (e.g., average monthly temperature, type and amount of fertilizer used, watering conditions, weather) are the input, and the specific properties of the crops are the output. In this case, the controllable variables are related to the fertilizer and watering conditions, but it would take several months to years to perform experiments under various conditions and determine the optimal fertilizer composition and watering conditions.

Active Learning for Deep Gaussian Process Surrogates Machine Learning

Deep Gaussian processes (DGPs) are increasingly popular as predictive models in machine learning (ML) for their non-stationary flexibility and ability to cope with abrupt regime changes in training data. Here we explore DGPs as surrogates for computer simulation experiments whose response surfaces exhibit similar characteristics. In particular, we transport a DGP's automatic warping of the input space and full uncertainty quantification (UQ), via a novel elliptical slice sampling (ESS) Bayesian posterior inferential scheme, through to active learning (AL) strategies that distribute runs non-uniformly in the input space -- something an ordinary (stationary) GP could not do. Building up the design sequentially in this way allows smaller training sets, limiting both expensive evaluation of the simulator code and mitigating cubic costs of DGP inference. When training data sizes are kept small through careful acquisition, and with parsimonious layout of latent layers, the framework can be both effective and computationally tractable. Our methods are illustrated on simulation data and two real computer experiments of varying input dimensionality. We provide an open source implementation in the "deepgp" package on CRAN.

Explanation from Specification Machine Learning

Explainable components in XAI algorithms often come from a familiar set of models, such as linear models or decision trees. We formulate an approach where the type of explanation produced is guided by a specification. Specifications are elicited from the user, possibly using interaction with the user and contributions from other areas. Areas where a specification could be obtained include forensic, medical, and scientific applications. Providing a menu of possible types of specifications in an area is an exploratory knowledge representation and reasoning task for the algorithm designer, aiming at understanding the possibilities and limitations of efficiently computable modes of explanations. Two examples are discussed: explanations for Bayesian networks using the theory of argumentation, and explanations for graph neural networks. The latter case illustrates the possibility of having a representation formalism available to the user for specifying the type of explanation requested, for example, a chemical query language for classifying molecules. The approach is motivated by a theory of explanation in the philosophy of science, and it is related to current questions in the philosophy of science on the role of machine learning.

Uncertainty Estimation in Deep Neural Networks for Point Cloud Segmentation in Factory Planning Machine Learning

The digital factory provides undoubtedly a great potential for future production systems in terms of efficiency and effectivity. A key aspect on the way to realize the digital copy of a real factory is the understanding of complex indoor environments on the basis of 3D data. In order to generate an accurate factory model including the major components, i.e. building parts, product assets and process details, the 3D data collected during digitalization can be processed with advanced methods of deep learning. In this work, we propose a fully Bayesian and an approximate Bayesian neural network for point cloud segmentation. This allows us to analyze how different ways of estimating uncertainty in these networks improve segmentation results on raw 3D point clouds. We achieve superior model performance for both, the Bayesian and the approximate Bayesian model compared to the frequentist one. This performance difference becomes even more striking when incorporating the networks' uncertainty in their predictions. For evaluation we use the scientific data set S3DIS as well as a data set, which was collected by the authors at a German automotive production plant. The methods proposed in this work lead to more accurate segmentation results and the incorporation of uncertainty information makes this approach especially applicable to safety critical applications.

Confidence Estimation via Auxiliary Models Machine Learning

Reliably quantifying the confidence of deep neural classifiers is a challenging yet fundamental requirement for deploying such models in safety-critical applications. In this paper, we introduce a novel target criterion for model confidence, namely the true class probability (TCP). We show that TCP offers better properties for confidence estimation than standard maximum class probability (MCP). Since the true class is by essence unknown at test time, we propose to learn TCP criterion from data with an auxiliary model, introducing a specific learning scheme adapted to this context. We evaluate our approach on the task of failure prediction and of self-training with pseudo-labels for domain adaptation, which both necessitate effective confidence estimates. Extensive experiments are conducted for validating the relevance of the proposed approach in each task. We study various network architectures and experiment with small and large datasets for image classification and semantic segmentation. In every tested benchmark, our approach outperforms strong baselines.

A Practical Approach towards Causality Mining in Clinical Text using Active Transfer Learning Artificial Intelligence

Objective: Causality mining is an active research area, which requires the application of state-of-the-art natural language processing techniques. In the healthcare domain, medical experts create clinical text to overcome the limitation of well-defined and schema driven information systems. The objective of this research work is to create a framework, which can convert clinical text into causal knowledge. Methods: A practical approach based on term expansion, phrase generation, BERT based phrase embedding and semantic matching, semantic enrichment, expert verification, and model evolution has been used to construct a comprehensive causality mining framework. This active transfer learning based framework along with its supplementary services, is able to extract and enrich, causal relationships and their corresponding entities from clinical text. Results: The multi-model transfer learning technique when applied over multiple iterations, gains performance improvements in terms of its accuracy and recall while keeping the precision constant. We also present a comparative analysis of the presented techniques with their common alternatives, which demonstrate the correctness of our approach and its ability to capture most causal relationships. Conclusion: The presented framework has provided cutting-edge results in the healthcare domain. However, the framework can be tweaked to provide causality detection in other domains, as well. Significance: The presented framework is generic enough to be utilized in any domain, healthcare services can gain massive benefits due to the voluminous and various nature of its data. This causal knowledge extraction framework can be used to summarize clinical text, create personas, discover medical knowledge, and provide evidence to clinical decision making.

Influence-Driven Explanations for Bayesian Network Classifiers Artificial Intelligence

One of the most pressing issues in AI in recent years has been the need to address the lack of explainability of many of its models. We focus on explanations for discrete Bayesian network classifiers (BCs), targeting greater transparency of their inner workings by including intermediate variables in explanations, rather than just the input and output variables as is standard practice. The proposed influence-driven explanations (IDXs) for BCs are systematically generated using the causal relationships between variables within the BC, called influences, which are then categorised by logical requirements, called relation properties, according to their behaviour. These relation properties both provide guarantees beyond heuristic explanation methods and allow the information underpinning an explanation to be tailored to a particular context's and user's requirements, e.g., IDXs may be dialectical or counterfactual. We demonstrate IDXs' capability to explain various forms of BCs, e.g., naive or multi-label, binary or categorical, and also integrate recent approaches to explanations for BCs from the literature. We evaluate IDXs with theoretical and empirical analyses, demonstrating their considerable advantages when compared with existing explanation methods.