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Inductive Learning: Overviews


Measuring and Reducing Model Update Regression in Structured Prediction for NLP

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Recent advance in deep learning has led to rapid adoption of machine learning based NLP models in a wide range of applications. Despite the continuous gain in accuracy, backward compatibility is also an important aspect for industrial applications, yet it received little research attention. Backward compatibility requires that the new model does not regress on cases that were correctly handled by its predecessor. This work studies model update regression in structured prediction tasks. We choose syntactic dependency parsing and conversational semantic parsing as representative examples of structured prediction tasks in NLP. First, we measure and analyze model update regression in different model update settings. Next, we explore and benchmark existing techniques for reducing model update regression including model ensemble and knowledge distillation. We further propose a simple and effective method, Backward-Congruent Re-ranking (BCR), by taking into account the characteristics of structured output. Experiments show that BCR can better mitigate model update regression than model ensemble and knowledge distillation approaches.


A Survey of Methods for Automated Algorithm Configuration

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Algorithm configuration (AC) is concerned with the automated search of the most suitable parameter configuration of a parametrized algorithm. There is currently a wide variety of AC problem variants and methods proposed in the literature. Existing reviews do not take into account all derivatives of the AC problem, nor do they offer a complete classification scheme. To this end, we introduce taxonomies to describe the AC problem and features of configuration methods, respectively. We review existing AC literature within the lens of our taxonomies, outline relevant design choices of configuration approaches, contrast methods and problem variants against each other, and describe the state of AC in industry. Finally, our review provides researchers and practitioners with a look at future research directions in the field of AC.


Towards a Theoretical Understanding of Word and Relation Representation

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Representing words by vectors, or embeddings, enables computational reasoning and is foundational to automating natural language tasks. For example, if word embeddings of similar words contain similar values, word similarity can be readily assessed, whereas judging that from their spelling is often impossible (e.g. cat /feline) and to predetermine and store similarities between all words is prohibitively time-consuming, memory intensive and subjective. We focus on word embeddings learned from text corpora and knowledge graphs. Several well-known algorithms learn word embeddings from text on an unsupervised basis by learning to predict those words that occur around each word, e.g. word2vec and GloVe. Parameters of such word embeddings are known to reflect word co-occurrence statistics, but how they capture semantic meaning has been unclear. Knowledge graph representation models learn representations both of entities (words, people, places, etc.) and relations between them, typically by training a model to predict known facts in a supervised manner. Despite steady improvements in fact prediction accuracy, little is understood of the latent structure that enables this. The limited understanding of how latent semantic structure is encoded in the geometry of word embeddings and knowledge graph representations makes a principled means of improving their performance, reliability or interpretability unclear. To address this: 1. we theoretically justify the empirical observation that particular geometric relationships between word embeddings learned by algorithms such as word2vec and GloVe correspond to semantic relations between words; and 2. we extend this correspondence between semantics and geometry to the entities and relations of knowledge graphs, providing a model for the latent structure of knowledge graph representation linked to that of word embeddings.


ColloSSL: Collaborative Self-Supervised Learning for Human Activity Recognition

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

A major bottleneck in training robust Human-Activity Recognition models (HAR) is the need for large-scale labeled sensor datasets. Because labeling large amounts of sensor data is an expensive task, unsupervised and semi-supervised learning techniques have emerged that can learn good features from the data without requiring any labels. In this paper, we extend this line of research and present a novel technique called Collaborative Self-Supervised Learning (ColloSSL) which leverages unlabeled data collected from multiple devices worn by a user to learn high-quality features of the data. A key insight that underpins the design of ColloSSL is that unlabeled sensor datasets simultaneously captured by multiple devices can be viewed as natural transformations of each other, and leveraged to generate a supervisory signal for representation learning. We present three technical innovations to extend conventional self-supervised learning algorithms to a multi-device setting: a Device Selection approach which selects positive and negative devices to enable contrastive learning, a Contrastive Sampling algorithm which samples positive and negative examples in a multi-device setting, and a loss function called Multi-view Contrastive Loss which extends standard contrastive loss to a multi-device setting. Our experimental results on three multi-device datasets show that ColloSSL outperforms both fully-supervised and semi-supervised learning techniques in majority of the experiment settings, resulting in an absolute increase of upto 7.9% in F_1 score compared to the best performing baselines. We also show that ColloSSL outperforms the fully-supervised methods in a low-data regime, by just using one-tenth of the available labeled data in the best case.


Pushing the limits of self-supervised ResNets: Can we outperform supervised learning without labels on ImageNet?

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Despite recent progress made by self-supervised methods in representation learning with residual networks, they still underperform supervised learning on the ImageNet classification benchmark, limiting their applicability in performance-critical settings. Building on prior theoretical insights from Mitrovic et al., 2021, we propose ReLICv2 which combines an explicit invariance loss with a contrastive objective over a varied set of appropriately constructed data views. ReLICv2 achieves 77.1% top-1 classification accuracy on ImageNet using linear evaluation with a ResNet50 architecture and 80.6% with larger ResNet models, outperforming previous state-of-the-art self-supervised approaches by a wide margin. Most notably, ReLICv2 is the first representation learning method to consistently outperform the supervised baseline in a like-for-like comparison using a range of standard ResNet architectures. Finally we show that despite using ResNet encoders, ReLICv2 is comparable to state-of-the-art self-supervised vision transformers.


Effective and interpretable dispatching rules for dynamic job shops via guided empirical learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The emergence of Industry 4.0 is making production systems more flexible and also more dynamic. In these settings, schedules often need to be adapted in real-time by dispatching rules. Although substantial progress was made until the '90s, the performance of these rules is still rather limited. The machine learning literature is developing a variety of methods to improve them, but the resulting rules are difficult to interpret and do not generalise well for a wide range of settings. This paper is the first major attempt at combining machine learning with domain problem reasoning for scheduling. The idea consists of using the insights obtained with the latter to guide the empirical search of the former. Our hypothesis is that this guided empirical learning process should result in dispatching rules that are effective and interpretable and which generalise well to different instance classes. We test our approach in the classical dynamic job shop scheduling problem minimising tardiness, which is one of the most well-studied scheduling problems. Nonetheless, results suggest that our approach was able to find new state-of-the-art rules, which significantly outperform the existing literature in the vast majority of settings, from loose to tight due dates and from low utilisation conditions to congested shops. Overall, the average improvement is 19%. Moreover, the rules are compact, interpretable, and generalise well to extreme, unseen scenarios.


Pre-train, Prompt, and Predict: A Systematic Survey of Prompting Methods in Natural Language Processing

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper surveys and organizes research works in a new paradigm in natural language processing, which we dub "prompt-based learning". Unlike traditional supervised learning, which trains a model to take in an input x and predict an output y as P(y|x), prompt-based learning is based on language models that model the probability of text directly. To use these models to perform prediction tasks, the original input x is modified using a template into a textual string prompt x' that has some unfilled slots, and then the language model is used to probabilistically fill the unfilled information to obtain a final string x, from which the final output y can be derived. This framework is powerful and attractive for a number of reasons: it allows the language model to be pre-trained on massive amounts of raw text, and by defining a new prompting function the model is able to perform few-shot or even zero-shot learning, adapting to new scenarios with few or no labeled data. In this paper we introduce the basics of this promising paradigm, describe a unified set of mathematical notations that can cover a wide variety of existing work, and organize existing work along several dimensions, e.g.the choice of pre-trained models, prompts, and tuning strategies. To make the field more accessible to interested beginners, we not only make a systematic review of existing works and a highly structured typology of prompt-based concepts, but also release other resources, e.g., a website http://pretrain.nlpedia.ai/ including constantly-updated survey, and paperlist.


Weakly Supervised Learning Creates a Fusion of Modeling Cultures

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The past two decades have witnessed the great success of the algorithmic modeling framework advocated by Breiman et al. (2001). Nevertheless, the excellent prediction performance of these black-box models rely heavily on the availability of strong supervision, i.e. a large set of accurate and exact ground-truth labels. In practice, strong supervision can be unavailable or expensive, which calls for modeling techniques under weak supervision. In this comment, we summarize the key concepts in weakly supervised learning and discuss some recent developments in the field. Using algorithmic modeling alone under a weak supervision might lead to unstable and misleading results. A promising direction would be integrating the data modeling culture into such a framework.


Self-supervised on Graphs: Contrastive, Generative,or Predictive

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Deep learning on graphs has recently achieved remarkable success on a variety of tasks while such success relies heavily on the massive and carefully labeled data. However, precise annotations are generally very expensive and time-consuming. To address this problem, self-supervised learning (SSL) is emerging as a new paradigm for extracting informative knowledge through well-designed pretext tasks without relying on manual labels. In this survey, we extend the concept of SSL, which first emerged in the fields of computer vision and natural language processing, to present a timely and comprehensive review of the existing SSL techniques for graph data. Specifically, we divide existing graph SSL methods into three categories: contrastive, generative, and predictive. More importantly, unlike many other surveys that only provide a high-level description of published research, we present an additional mathematical summary of the existing works in a unified framework. Furthermore, to facilitate methodological development and empirical comparisons, we also summarize the commonly used datasets, evaluation metrics, downstream tasks, and open-source implementations of various algorithms. Finally, we discuss the technical challenges and potential future directions for improving graph self-supervised learning.


From Weakly Supervised Learning to Biquality Learning: an Introduction

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The field of Weakly Supervised Learning (WSL) has recently seen a surge of popularity, with numerous papers addressing different types of "supervision deficiencies". In WSL use cases, a variety of situations exists where the collected "information" is imperfect. The paradigm of WSL attempts to list and cover these problems with associated solutions. In this paper, we review the research progress on WSL with the aim to make it as a brief introduction to this field. We present the three axis of WSL cube and an overview of most of all the elements of their facets. We propose three measurable quantities that acts as coordinates in the previously defined cube namely: Quality, Adaptability and Quantity of information. Thus we suggest that Biquality Learning framework can be defined as a plan of the WSL cube and propose to re-discover previously unrelated patches in WSL literature as a unified Biquality Learning literature.