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I have worked with IBM, Cisco, EMC-RSA and others, and I have been an academics for a couple of years. I worked in four continents and travelled extensively. I have a PhD in Engineering, an MSc in AI and an MBA, i am also a Certified Blockchain Expert.

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Machine Learning Towards Intelligent Systems: Applications, Challenges, and Opportunities Artificial Intelligence

The emergence and continued reliance on the Internet and related technologies has resulted in the generation of large amounts of data that can be made available for analyses. However, humans do not possess the cognitive capabilities to understand such large amounts of data. Machine learning (ML) provides a mechanism for humans to process large amounts of data, gain insights about the behavior of the data, and make more informed decision based on the resulting analysis. ML has applications in various fields. This review focuses on some of the fields and applications such as education, healthcare, network security, banking and finance, and social media. Within these fields, there are multiple unique challenges that exist. However, ML can provide solutions to these challenges, as well as create further research opportunities. Accordingly, this work surveys some of the challenges facing the aforementioned fields and presents some of the previous literature works that tackled them. Moreover, it suggests several research opportunities that benefit from the use of ML to address these challenges.

Adaptive Gradient Sparsification for Efficient Federated Learning: An Online Learning Approach Machine Learning

--Federated learning (FL) is an emerging technique for training machine learning models using geographically dispersed data collected by local entities. It includes local computation and synchronization steps. T o reduce the communication overhead and improve the overall efficiency of FL, gradient sparsification (GS) can be applied, where instead of the full gradient, only a small subset of important elements of the gradient is communicated. Existing work on GS uses a fixed degree of gradient sparsity for i.i.d.-distributed data within a datacenter . In this paper, we consider adaptive degree of sparsity and non-i.i.d. We first present a fairness-aware GS method which ensures that different clients provide a similar amount of updates. Then, with the goal of minimizing the overall training time, we propose a novel online learning formulation and algorithm for automatically determining the near-optimal communication and computation tradeoff that is controlled by the degree of gradient sparsity. The online learning algorithm uses an estimated sign of the derivative of the objective function, which gives a regret bound that is asymptotically equal to the case where exact derivative is available. Experiments with real datasets confirm the benefits of our proposed approaches, showing up to 40% improvement in model accuracy for a finite training time. Modern consumer and enterprise users generate a large amount of data at the network edge, such as sensor measurements from Internet of Things (IoT) devices, images captured by cameras, transaction records of different branches of a company, etc. Such data may not be shareable with a central cloud, due to data privacy regulations and communication bandwidth limitation [1]. In these scenarios, federated learning (FL) is a useful approach for training machine learning models from local data [1]-[5]. The basic process of FL includes local gradient computation at clients and model weight (parameter) aggregation through a server. Instead of sharing the raw data, only model weights or gradients need to be shared between the clients and the server in the FL process.

Detecting Cyberattacks in Industrial Control Systems Using Online Learning Algorithms Machine Learning

Industrial control systems are critical to the operation of industrial facilities, especially for critical infrastructures, such as refineries, power grids, and transportation systems. Similar to other information systems, a significant threat to industrial control systems is the attack from cyberspace---the offensive maneuvers launched by "anonymous" in the digital world that target computer-based assets with the goal of compromising a system's functions or probing for information. Owing to the importance of industrial control systems, and the possibly devastating consequences of being attacked, significant endeavors have been attempted to secure industrial control systems from cyberattacks. Among them are intrusion detection systems that serve as the first line of defense by monitoring and reporting potentially malicious activities. Classical machine-learning-based intrusion detection methods usually generate prediction models by learning modest-sized training samples all at once. Such approach is not always applicable to industrial control systems, as industrial control systems must process continuous control commands with limited computational resources in a nonstop way. To satisfy such requirements, we propose using online learning to learn prediction models from the controlling data stream. We introduce several state-of-the-art online learning algorithms categorically, and illustrate their efficacies on two typically used testbeds---power system and gas pipeline. Further, we explore a new cost-sensitive online learning algorithm to solve the class-imbalance problem that is pervasive in industrial intrusion detection systems. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm can achieve an overall improvement in the detection rate of cyberattacks in industrial control systems.

Decentralized Online Learning: Take Benefits from Others' Data without Sharing Your Own to Track Global Trend Machine Learning

Decentralized Online Learning (online learning in decentralized networks) attracts more and more attention, since it is believed that Decentralized Online Learning can help the data providers cooperatively better solve their online problems without sharing their private data to a third party or other providers. Typically, the cooperation is achieved by letting the data providers exchange their models between neighbors, e.g., recommendation model. However, the best regret bound for a decentralized online learning algorithm is $\Ocal{n\sqrt{T}}$, where $n$ is the number of nodes (or users) and $T$ is the number of iterations. This is clearly insignificant since this bound can be achieved \emph{without} any communication in the networks. This reminds us to ask a fundamental question: \emph{Can people really get benefit from the decentralized online learning by exchanging information?} In this paper, we studied when and why the communication can help the decentralized online learning to reduce the regret. Specifically, each loss function is characterized by two components: the adversarial component and the stochastic component. Under this characterization, we show that decentralized online gradient (DOG) enjoys a regret bound $\Ocal{n\sqrt{T}G + \sqrt{nT}\sigma}$, where $G$ measures the magnitude of the adversarial component in the private data (or equivalently the local loss function) and $\sigma$ measures the randomness within the private data. This regret suggests that people can get benefits from the randomness in the private data by exchanging private information. Another important contribution of this paper is to consider the dynamic regret -- a more practical regret to track users' interest dynamics. Empirical studies are also conducted to validate our analysis.

Data Poisoning Attacks against Online Learning Machine Learning

We consider data poisoning attacks, a class of adversarial attacks on machine learning where an adversary has the power to alter a small fraction of the training data in order to make the trained classifier satisfy certain objectives. While there has been much prior work on data poisoning, most of it is in the offline setting, and attacks for online learning, where training data arrives in a streaming manner, are not well understood. In this work, we initiate a systematic investigation of data poisoning attacks for online learning. We formalize the problem into two settings, and we propose a general attack strategy, formulated as an optimization problem, that applies to both with some modifications. We propose three solution strategies, and perform extensive experimental evaluation. Finally, we discuss the implications of our findings for building successful defenses.