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Anomaly Detection: Instructional Materials


Detecting Anomalies within Time Series using Local Neural Transformations

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We develop a new method to detect anomalies within time series, which is essential in many application domains, reaching from self-driving cars, finance, and marketing to medical diagnosis and epidemiology. The method is based on self-supervised deep learning that has played a key role in facilitating deep anomaly detection on images, where powerful image transformations are available. However, such transformations are widely unavailable for time series. Addressing this, we develop Local Neural Transformations(LNT), a method learning local transformations of time series from data. The method produces an anomaly score for each time step and thus can be used to detect anomalies within time series. We prove in a theoretical analysis that our novel training objective is more suitable for transformation learning than previous deep Anomaly detection(AD) methods. Our experiments demonstrate that LNT can find anomalies in speech segments from the LibriSpeech data set and better detect interruptions to cyber-physical systems than previous work. Visualization of the learned transformations gives insight into the type of transformations that LNT learns.


An Attention-based ConvLSTM Autoencoder with Dynamic Thresholding for Unsupervised Anomaly Detection in Multivariate Time Series

arXiv.org Machine Learning

As a substantial amount of multivariate time series data is being produced by the complex systems in Smart Manufacturing, improved anomaly detection frameworks are needed to reduce the operational risks and the monitoring burden placed on the system operators. However, building such frameworks is challenging, as a sufficiently large amount of defective training data is often not available and frameworks are required to capture both the temporal and contextual dependencies across different time steps while being robust to noise. In this paper, we propose an unsupervised Attention-based Convolutional Long Short-Term Memory (ConvLSTM) Autoencoder with Dynamic Thresholding (ACLAE-DT) framework for anomaly detection and diagnosis in multivariate time series. The framework starts by pre-processing and enriching the data, before constructing feature images to characterize the system statuses across different time steps by capturing the inter-correlations between pairs of time series. Afterwards, the constructed feature images are fed into an attention-based ConvLSTM autoencoder, which aims to encode the constructed feature images and capture the temporal behavior, followed by decoding the compressed knowledge representation to reconstruct the feature images input. The reconstruction errors are then computed and subjected to a statistical-based, dynamic thresholding mechanism to detect and diagnose the anomalies. Evaluation results conducted on real-life manufacturing data demonstrate the performance strengths of the proposed approach over state-of-the-art methods under different experimental settings.


Self-Supervised Anomaly Detection by Self-Distillation and Negative Sampling

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Detecting whether examples belong to a given in-distribution or are Out-Of-Distribution (OOD) requires identifying features specific to the in-distribution. In the absence of labels, these features can be learned by self-supervised techniques under the generic assumption that the most abstract features are those which are statistically most over-represented in comparison to other distributions from the same domain. In this work, we show that self-distillation of the in-distribution training set together with contrasting against negative examples derived from shifting transformation of auxiliary data strongly improves OOD detection. We find that this improvement depends on how the negative samples are generated. In particular, we observe that by leveraging negative samples, which keep the statistics of low-level features while changing the high-level semantics, higher average detection performance is obtained. Furthermore, good negative sampling strategies can be identified from the sensitivity of the OOD detection score. The efficiency of our approach is demonstrated across a diverse range of OOD detection problems, setting new benchmarks for unsupervised OOD detection in the visual domain.


Adaptive Memory Networks with Self-supervised Learning for Unsupervised Anomaly Detection

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Unsupervised anomaly detection aims to build models to effectively detect unseen anomalies by only training on the normal data. Although previous reconstruction-based methods have made fruitful progress, their generalization ability is limited due to two critical challenges. First, the training dataset only contains normal patterns, which limits the model generalization ability. Second, the feature representations learned by existing models often lack representativeness which hampers the ability to preserve the diversity of normal patterns. In this paper, we propose a novel approach called Adaptive Memory Network with Self-supervised Learning (AMSL) to address these challenges and enhance the generalization ability in unsupervised anomaly detection. Based on the convolutional autoencoder structure, AMSL incorporates a self-supervised learning module to learn general normal patterns and an adaptive memory fusion module to learn rich feature representations. Experiments on four public multivariate time series datasets demonstrate that AMSL significantly improves the performance compared to other state-of-the-art methods. Specifically, on the largest CAP sleep stage detection dataset with 900 million samples, AMSL outperforms the second-best baseline by \textbf{4}\%+ in both accuracy and F1 score. Apart from the enhanced generalization ability, AMSL is also more robust against input noise.


ASC-Net: Unsupervised Medical Anomaly Segmentation Using an Adversarial-based Selective Cutting Network

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this paper we consider the problem of unsupervised anomaly segmentation in medical images, which has attracted increasing attention in recent years due to the expensive pixel-level annotations from experts and the existence of a large amount of unannotated normal and abnormal image scans. We introduce a segmentation network that utilizes adversarial learning to partition an image into two cuts, with one of them falling into a reference distribution provided by the user. This Adversarial-based Selective Cutting network (ASC-Net) bridges the two domains of cluster-based deep segmentation and adversarial-based anomaly/novelty detection algorithms. Our ASC-Net learns from normal and abnormal medical scans to segment anomalies in medical scans without any masks for supervision. We evaluate this unsupervised anomly segmentation model on three public datasets, i.e., BraTS 2019 for brain tumor segmentation, LiTS for liver lesion segmentation, and MS-SEG 2015 for brain lesion segmentation, and also on a private dataset for brain tumor segmentation. Compared to existing methods, our model demonstrates tremendous performance gains in unsupervised anomaly segmentation tasks. Although there is still room to further improve performance compared to supervised learning algorithms, the promising experimental results and interesting observations shed light on building an unsupervised learning algorithm for medical anomaly identification using user-defined knowledge.


Online Self-Evolving Anomaly Detection in Cloud Computing Environments

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Modern cloud computing systems contain hundreds to thousands of computing and storage servers. Such a scale, combined with ever-growing system complexity, is causing a key challenge to failure and resource management for dependable cloud computing. Autonomic failure detection is a crucial technique for understanding emergent, cloud-wide phenomena and self-managing cloud resources for system-level dependability assurance. To detect failures, we need to monitor the cloud execution and collect runtime performance data. These data are usually unlabeled, and thus a prior failure history is not always available in production clouds. In this paper, we present a \emph{self-evolving anomaly detection} (SEAD) framework for cloud dependability assurance. Our framework self-evolves by recursively exploring newly verified anomaly records and continuously updating the anomaly detector online. As a distinct advantage of our framework, cloud system administrators only need to check a small number of detected anomalies, and their decisions are leveraged to update the detector. Thus, the detector evolves following the upgrade of system hardware, update of the software stack, and change of user workloads. Moreover, we design two types of detectors, one for general anomaly detection and the other for type-specific anomaly detection. With the help of self-evolving techniques, our detectors can achieve 88.94\% in sensitivity and 94.60\% in specificity on average, which makes them suitable for real-world deployment.


Generalized Out-of-Distribution Detection: A Survey

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Out-of-distribution (OOD) detection is critical to ensuring the reliability and safety of machine learning systems. For instance, in autonomous driving, we would like the driving system to issue an alert and hand over the control to humans when it detects unusual scenes or objects that it has never seen before and cannot make a safe decision. This problem first emerged in 2017 and since then has received increasing attention from the research community, leading to a plethora of methods developed, ranging from classification-based to density-based to distance-based ones. Meanwhile, several other problems are closely related to OOD detection in terms of motivation and methodology. These include anomaly detection (AD), novelty detection (ND), open set recognition (OSR), and outlier detection (OD). Despite having different definitions and problem settings, these problems often confuse readers and practitioners, and as a result, some existing studies misuse terms. In this survey, we first present a generic framework called generalized OOD detection, which encompasses the five aforementioned problems, i.e., AD, ND, OSR, OOD detection, and OD. Under our framework, these five problems can be seen as special cases or sub-tasks, and are easier to distinguish. Then, we conduct a thorough review of each of the five areas by summarizing their recent technical developments. We conclude this survey with open challenges and potential research directions.


A Simple Unified Framework for Anomaly Detection in Deep Reinforcement Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Abnormal states in deep reinforcement learning~(RL) are states that are beyond the scope of an RL policy. Such states may make the RL system unsafe and impede its deployment in real scenarios. In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective anomaly detection framework for deep RL algorithms that simultaneously considers random, adversarial and out-of-distribution~(OOD) state outliers. In particular, we attain the class-conditional distributions for each action class under the Gaussian assumption, and rely on these distributions to discriminate between inliers and outliers based on Mahalanobis Distance~(MD) and Robust Mahalanobis Distance. We conduct extensive experiments on Atari games that verify the effectiveness of our detection strategies. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first in-detail study of statistical and adversarial anomaly detection in deep RL algorithms. This simple unified anomaly detection paves the way towards deploying safe RL systems in real-world applications.


End-To-End Anomaly Detection for Identifying Malicious Cyber Behavior through NLP-Based Log Embeddings

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Rule-based IDS (intrusion detection systems) are being replaced by more robust neural IDS, which demonstrate great potential in the field of Cybersecurity. However, these ML approaches continue to rely on ad-hoc feature engineering techniques, which lack the capacity to vectorize inputs in ways that are fully relevant to the discovery of anomalous cyber activity. We propose a deep end-to-end framework with NLP-inspired components for identifying potentially malicious behaviors on enterprise computer networks. We also demonstrate the efficacy of this technique on the recently released DARPA OpTC data set.


Adaptive Anomaly Detection for Internet of Things in Hierarchical Edge Computing: A Contextual-Bandit Approach

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The advances in deep neural networks (DNN) have significantly enhanced real-time detection of anomalous data in IoT applications. However, the complexity-accuracy-delay dilemma persists: complex DNN models offer higher accuracy, but typical IoT devices can barely afford the computation load, and the remedy of offloading the load to the cloud incurs long delay. In this paper, we address this challenge by proposing an adaptive anomaly detection scheme with hierarchical edge computing (HEC). Specifically, we first construct multiple anomaly detection DNN models with increasing complexity, and associate each of them to a corresponding HEC layer. Then, we design an adaptive model selection scheme that is formulated as a contextual-bandit problem and solved by using a reinforcement learning policy network. We also incorporate a parallelism policy training method to accelerate the training process by taking advantage of distributed models. We build an HEC testbed using real IoT devices, implement and evaluate our contextual-bandit approach with both univariate and multivariate IoT datasets. In comparison with both baseline and state-of-the-art schemes, our adaptive approach strikes the best accuracy-delay tradeoff on the univariate dataset, and achieves the best accuracy and F1-score on the multivariate dataset with only negligibly longer delay than the best (but inflexible) scheme.