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Semantic Web: Instructional Materials


Low-resource Learning with Knowledge Graphs: A Comprehensive Survey

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Machine learning methods especially deep neural networks have achieved great success but many of them often rely on a number of labeled samples for training. In real-world applications, we often need to address sample shortage due to e.g., dynamic contexts with emerging prediction targets and costly sample annotation. Therefore, low-resource learning, which aims to learn robust prediction models with no enough resources (especially training samples), is now being widely investigated. Among all the low-resource learning studies, many prefer to utilize some auxiliary information in the form of Knowledge Graph (KG), which is becoming more and more popular for knowledge representation, to reduce the reliance on labeled samples. In this survey, we very comprehensively reviewed over $90$ papers about KG-aware research for two major low-resource learning settings -- zero-shot learning (ZSL) where new classes for prediction have never appeared in training, and few-shot learning (FSL) where new classes for prediction have only a small number of labeled samples that are available. We first introduced the KGs used in ZSL and FSL studies as well as the existing and potential KG construction solutions, and then systematically categorized and summarized KG-aware ZSL and FSL methods, dividing them into different paradigms such as the mapping-based, the data augmentation, the propagation-based and the optimization-based. We next presented different applications, including not only KG augmented tasks in Computer Vision and Natural Language Processing (e.g., image classification, text classification and knowledge extraction), but also tasks for KG curation (e.g., inductive KG completion), and some typical evaluation resources for each task. We eventually discussed some challenges and future directions on aspects such as new learning and reasoning paradigms, and the construction of high quality KGs.


Knowledge Graphs Evolution and Preservation -- A Technical Report from ISWS 2019

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

One of the grand challenges discussed during the Dagstuhl Seminar "Knowledge Graphs: New Directions for Knowledge Representation on the Semantic Web" and described in its report is that of a: "Public FAIR Knowledge Graph of Everything: We increasingly see the creation of knowledge graphs that capture information about the entirety of a class of entities. [...] This grand challenge extends this further by asking if we can create a knowledge graph of "everything" ranging from common sense concepts to location based entities. This knowledge graph should be "open to the public" in a FAIR manner democratizing this mass amount of knowledge." Although linked open data (LOD) is one knowledge graph, it is the closest realisation (and probably the only one) to a public FAIR Knowledge Graph (KG) of everything. Surely, LOD provides a unique testbed for experimenting and evaluating research hypotheses on open and FAIR KG. One of the most neglected FAIR issues about KGs is their ongoing evolution and long term preservation. We want to investigate this problem, that is to understand what preserving and supporting the evolution of KGs means and how these problems can be addressed. Clearly, the problem can be approached from different perspectives and may require the development of different approaches, including new theories, ontologies, metrics, strategies, procedures, etc. This document reports a collaborative effort performed by 9 teams of students, each guided by a senior researcher as their mentor, attending the International Semantic Web Research School (ISWS 2019). Each team provides a different perspective to the problem of knowledge graph evolution substantiated by a set of research questions as the main subject of their investigation. In addition, they provide their working definition for KG preservation and evolution.


Amazon.com: Ultimate Step by Step Guide to Machine Learning Using Python: Predictive modelling concepts explained in simple terms for beginners eBook: Anis, Daneyal: Kindle Store

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Reviewed By Rabia Tanveer for Readers' Favorite (5 Stars) Ultimate Step by Step Guide to Machine Learning Using Python: Predictive Modelling Concepts Explained in Simple Terms for Beginners by Daneyal Anis is a great book for beginners who want to learn Python and get into programming. From sharing the basics of the programming language to sharing some very advanced programming skills, the author has done a great job of sharing information and helping the reader increase their knowledge. The author describes how you can make models in Python, how you can code, master analytics and, overall, become a master of Python in 7 days. This is a good book for anyone who wishes to follow a career in Data Science but finds it to be intimidating. I have personally worked in a software house where the programmers worked using Python and sang praises about how easy it is. I decided to try the language and I understood nothing. I didn't have clear guidance or anyone who would help me understand the language properly. Ultimate Step by Step Guide to Machine Learning Using Python is the complete opposite.


Practical use of Knowledge Graph with Case Studies using Semantic Web…

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Toronto Center(Canada) Established 2018 Computer Architecture, AI, etc Fujitsu Laboratories of America, Inc. (U.S.) Established 1993 Software, AI, Networking High Performance Computing Fujitsu R & D Center Co., Ltd.


Webinar summary - Semantic annotation of images in the FAIR data era CGIAR Platform for Big Data in Agriculture

#artificialintelligence

Digital agriculture increasingly relies on the generation of large quantity of images. These images are processed with machine learning techniques to speed up the identification of objects, their classification, visualization, and interpretation. However, images must comply with the FAIR principles to facilitate their access, reuse, and interoperability. As stated in recent paper authored by the Planteome team (Trigkakis et al, 2018), "Plant researchers could benefit greatly from a trained classification model that predicts image annotations with a high degree of accuracy." In this third Ontologies Community of Practice webinar, Justin Preece, Senior Faculty Research Assistant Oregon State University, presents the module developed by the Planteome project using the Bio-Image Semantic Query User Environment (BISQUE), an online image analysis and storage platform of Cyverse.


Rule-based OWL Modeling with ROWLTab Protege Plugin

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

It has been argued that it is much easier to convey logical statements using rules rather than OWL (or description logic (DL)) axioms. Based on recent theoretical developments on transformations between rules and DLs, we have developed ROWLTab, a Protege plugin that allows users to enter OWL axioms by way of rules; the plugin then automatically converts these rules into OWL 2 DL axioms if possible, and prompts the user in case such a conversion is not possible without weakening the semantics of the rule. In this paper, we present ROWLTab, together with a user evaluation of its effectiveness compared to entering axioms using the standard Protege interface. Our evaluation shows that modeling with ROWLTab is much quicker than the standard interface, while at the same time, also less prone to errors for hard modeling tasks.



Towards Affordable Semantic Searching: Zero-Shot Retrieval via Dominant Attributes

AAAI Conferences

Instance-level retrieval has become an essential paradigm to index and retrieves images from large-scale databases. Conventional instance search requires at least an example of the query image to retrieve images that contain the same object instance. Existing semantic retrieval can only search semantically-related images, such as those sharing the same category or a set of tags, not the exact instances. Meanwhile, the unrealistic assumption is that all categories or tags are known beforehand. Training models for these semantic concepts highly rely on instance-level attributes or human captions which are expensive to acquire. Given the above challenges, this paper studies the Zero-shot Retrieval problem that aims for instance-level image search using only a few dominant attributes. The contributions are: 1) we utilise automatic word embedding to infer class-level attributes to circumvent expensive human labelling; 2) the inferred class-attributes can be extended into discriminative instance attributes through our proposed Latent Instance Attributes Discovery (LIAD) algorithm; 3) our method is not restricted to complete attribute signatures, query of dominant attributes can also be dealt with. On two benchmarks, CUB and SUN, extensive experiments demonstrate that our method can achieve promising performance for the problem. Moreover, our approach can also benefit conventional ZSL tasks.


Special Track on Ontologies and Social Semantic Web for Intelligent Educational Systems

AAAI Conferences

This allows for supporting more adequate and accurate representations of learners, their learning goals, learning material and contexts of its use, as well as more efficient access and navigation through learning resources. The goal is to advance intelligent educational systems, so as to achieve improved e-learning efficiency, flexibility and adaptation for single users and communities of users (learners, instructors, courseware authors, and others). The special track follows the workshop series Ontologies and Semantic Web for e-Learning, which was conducted successfully from 2002-2009 at a number of different conferences. The goals of this track are to discuss the current state-of-the-art in using ontologies and semantic web technologies in e-learning applications; and to attract the interest of the related research communities to the problems in the educational social semantic web and serve as an international platform for knowledge exchange and cooperation between researchers. This special track will be of interest to researchers interested in using ontologies, semantic web and social semantic web technologies in web-based educational systems, distributed hypermedia and open hypermedia systems, as well as in web intelligence and semantic web and social semantic web engineering.


U-Sem: Semantic Enrichment, User Modeling and Mining of Usage Data on the Social Web

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

With the growing popularity of Social Web applications, more and more user data is published on the Web everyday. Our research focuses on investigating ways of mining data from such platforms that can be used for modeling users and for semantically augmenting user profiles. This process can enhance adaptation and personalization in various adaptive Web-based systems. In this paper, we present the U-Sem people modeling service, a framework for the semantic enrichment and mining of people's profiles from usage data on the Social Web. We explain the architecture of our people modeling service and describe its application in an adult e-learning context as an example. Versions: Mar 21, 10:10, Mar 25, 09:37