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Expert Systems: Instructional Materials


Effective education through Artificial Intelligence in knowledge-based society

#artificialintelligence

Artificial intelligence has pioneered new technologies in the education for classroom engagements and in school systems on a broader dimension with huge potential to promote education. Haugeland defines AI as the exciting new effort to make computers think… machines with minds, in the full and literal sense. This article focuses on engineering education in a knowledge society with effectiveness in view. It examines the technologies in current use, applications, and future possibilities. It concludes that effectiveness is a continuously improvable process as we iterate towards a desirable future. Today's education model largely focuses on one instructor providing information to several learners at the same time.


Logical Reasoning for Task Oriented Dialogue Systems

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In recent years, large pretrained models have been used in dialogue systems to improve successful task completion rates. However, lack of reasoning capabilities of dialogue platforms make it difficult to provide relevant and fluent responses, unless the designers of a conversational experience spend a considerable amount of time implementing these capabilities in external rule based modules. In this work, we propose a novel method to fine-tune pretrained transformer models such as Roberta and T5. to reason over a set of facts in a given dialogue context. Our method includes a synthetic data generation mechanism which helps the model learn logical relations, such as comparison between list of numerical values, inverse relations (and negation), inclusion and exclusion for categorical attributes, and application of a combination of attributes over both numerical and categorical values, and spoken form for numerical values, without need for additional training dataset. We show that the transformer based model can perform logical reasoning to answer questions when the dialogue context contains all the required information, otherwise it is able to extract appropriate constraints to pass to downstream components (e.g. a knowledge base) when partial information is available. We observe that transformer based models such as UnifiedQA-T5 can be fine-tuned to perform logical reasoning (such as numerical and categorical attributes' comparison) over attributes that been seen in training time (e.g., accuracy of 90\%+ for comparison of smaller than $k_{\max}$=5 values over heldout test dataset).


Transfer Learning for Fault Diagnosis of Transmission Lines

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Recent artificial intelligence-based methods have shown great promise in the use of neural networks for real-time sensing and detection of transmission line faults and estimation of their locations. The expansion of power systems including transmission lines with various lengths have made a fault detection, classification, and location estimation process more challenging. Transmission line datasets are stream data which are continuously collected by various sensors and hence, require generalized and fast fault diagnosis approaches. Newly collected datasets including voltages and currents might not have enough and accurate labels (fault and no fault) that are useful to train neural networks. In this paper, a novel transfer learning framework based on a pre-trained LeNet-5 convolutional neural network is proposed. This method is able to diagnose faults for different transmission line lengths and impedances by transferring the knowledge from a source convolutional neural network to predict a dissimilar target dataset. By transferring this knowledge, faults from various transmission lines, without having enough labels, can be diagnosed faster and more efficiently compared to the existing methods. To prove the feasibility and effectiveness of this methodology, seven different datasets that include various lengths of transmission lines are used. The robustness of the proposed methodology against generator voltage fluctuation, variation in fault distance, fault inception angle, fault resistance, and phase difference between the two generators are well shown, thus proving its practical values in the fault diagnosis of transmission lines.


Combining Machine Learning with Knowledge Engineering to detect Fake News in Social Networks-a survey

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Due to extensive spread of fake news on social and news media it became an emerging research topic now a days that gained attention. In the news media and social media the information is spread highspeed but without accuracy and hence detection mechanism should be able to predict news fast enough to tackle the dissemination of fake news. It has the potential for negative impacts on individuals and society. Therefore, detecting fake news on social media is important and also a technically challenging problem these days. We knew that Machine learning is helpful for building Artificial intelligence systems based on tacit knowledge because it can help us to solve complex problems due to real word data. On the other side we knew that Knowledge engineering is helpful for representing experts knowledge which people aware of that knowledge. Due to this we proposed that integration of Machine learning and knowledge engineering can be helpful in detection of fake news. In this paper we present what is fake news, importance of fake news, overall impact of fake news on different areas, different ways to detect fake news on social media, existing detections algorithms that can help us to overcome the issue, similar application areas and at the end we proposed combination of data driven and engineered knowledge to combat fake news. We studied and compared three different modules text classifiers, stance detection applications and fact checking existing techniques that can help to detect fake news. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of fake news on society. Experimental evaluation of publically available datasets and our proposed fake news detection combination can serve better in detection of fake news.


A Survey on Hyperdimensional Computing aka Vector Symbolic Architectures, Part II: Applications, Cognitive Models, and Challenges

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This is Part II of the two-part comprehensive survey devoted to a computing framework most commonly known under the names Hyperdimensional Computing and Vector Symbolic Architectures (HDC/VSA). Both names refer to a family of computational models that use high-dimensional distributed representations and rely on the algebraic properties of their key operations to incorporate the advantages of structured symbolic representations and vector distributed representations. Holographic Reduced Representations is an influential HDC/VSA model that is well-known in the machine learning domain and often used to refer to the whole family. However, for the sake of consistency, we use HDC/VSA to refer to the area. Part I of this survey covered foundational aspects of the area, such as historical context leading to the development of HDC/VSA, key elements of any HDC/VSA model, known HDC/VSA models, and transforming input data of various types into high-dimensional vectors suitable for HDC/VSA. This second part surveys existing applications, the role of HDC/VSA in cognitive computing and architectures, as well as directions for future work. Most of the applications lie within the machine learning/artificial intelligence domain, however we also cover other applications to provide a thorough picture. The survey is written to be useful for both newcomers and practitioners.


Systems Challenges for Trustworthy Embodied Systems

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

A new generation of increasingly autonomous and self-learning systems, which we call embodied systems, is about to be developed. When deploying these systems into a real-life context we face various engineering challenges, as it is crucial to coordinate the behavior of embodied systems in a beneficial manner, ensure their compatibility with our human-centered social values, and design verifiably safe and reliable human-machine interaction. We are arguing that raditional systems engineering is coming to a climacteric from embedded to embodied systems, and with assuring the trustworthiness of dynamic federations of situationally aware, intent-driven, explorative, ever-evolving, largely non-predictable, and increasingly autonomous embodied systems in uncertain, complex, and unpredictable real-world contexts. We are also identifying a number of urgent systems challenges for trustworthy embodied systems, including robust and human-centric AI, cognitive architectures, uncertainty quantification, trustworthy self-integration, and continual analysis and assurance.


Forecasting: theory and practice

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Forecasting has always been at the forefront of decision making and planning. The uncertainty that surrounds the future is both exciting and challenging, with individuals and organisations seeking to minimise risks and maximise utilities. The large number of forecasting applications calls for a diverse set of forecasting methods to tackle real-life challenges. This article provides a non-systematic review of the theory and the practice of forecasting. We provide an overview of a wide range of theoretical, state-of-the-art models, methods, principles, and approaches to prepare, produce, organise, and evaluate forecasts. We then demonstrate how such theoretical concepts are applied in a variety of real-life contexts. We do not claim that this review is an exhaustive list of methods and applications. However, we wish that our encyclopedic presentation will offer a point of reference for the rich work that has been undertaken over the last decades, with some key insights for the future of forecasting theory and practice. Given its encyclopedic nature, the intended mode of reading is non-linear. We offer cross-references to allow the readers to navigate through the various topics. We complement the theoretical concepts and applications covered by large lists of free or open-source software implementations and publicly-available databases.


Challenges of Artificial Intelligence -- From Machine Learning and Computer Vision to Emotional Intelligence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) has become a part of everyday conversation and our lives. It is considered as the new electricity that is revolutionizing the world. AI is heavily invested in both industry and academy. However, there is also a lot of hype in the current AI debate. AI based on so-called deep learning has achieved impressive results in many problems, but its limits are already visible. AI has been under research since the 1940s, and the industry has seen many ups and downs due to over-expectations and related disappointments that have followed. The purpose of this book is to give a realistic picture of AI, its history, its potential and limitations. We believe that AI is a helper, not a ruler of humans. We begin by describing what AI is and how it has evolved over the decades. After fundamentals, we explain the importance of massive data for the current mainstream of artificial intelligence. The most common representations for AI, methods, and machine learning are covered. In addition, the main application areas are introduced. Computer vision has been central to the development of AI. The book provides a general introduction to computer vision, and includes an exposure to the results and applications of our own research. Emotions are central to human intelligence, but little use has been made in AI. We present the basics of emotional intelligence and our own research on the topic. We discuss super-intelligence that transcends human understanding, explaining why such achievement seems impossible on the basis of present knowledge,and how AI could be improved. Finally, a summary is made of the current state of AI and what to do in the future. In the appendix, we look at the development of AI education, especially from the perspective of contents at our own university.


What is Event Knowledge Graph: A Survey

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Besides entity-centric knowledge, usually organized as Knowledge Graph (KG), events are also an essential kind of knowledge in the world, which trigger the spring up of event-centric knowledge representation form like Event KG (EKG). It plays an increasingly important role in many machine learning and artificial intelligence applications, such as intelligent search, question-answering, recommendation, and text generation. This paper provides a comprehensive survey of EKG from history, ontology, instance, and application views. Specifically, to characterize EKG thoroughly, we focus on its history, definitions, schema induction, acquisition, related representative graphs/systems, and applications. The development processes and trends are studied therein. We further summarize perspective directions to facilitate future research on EKG.


Low-resource Learning with Knowledge Graphs: A Comprehensive Survey

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Machine learning methods especially deep neural networks have achieved great success but many of them often rely on a number of labeled samples for training. In real-world applications, we often need to address sample shortage due to e.g., dynamic contexts with emerging prediction targets and costly sample annotation. Therefore, low-resource learning, which aims to learn robust prediction models with no enough resources (especially training samples), is now being widely investigated. Among all the low-resource learning studies, many prefer to utilize some auxiliary information in the form of Knowledge Graph (KG), which is becoming more and more popular for knowledge representation, to reduce the reliance on labeled samples. In this survey, we very comprehensively reviewed over $90$ papers about KG-aware research for two major low-resource learning settings -- zero-shot learning (ZSL) where new classes for prediction have never appeared in training, and few-shot learning (FSL) where new classes for prediction have only a small number of labeled samples that are available. We first introduced the KGs used in ZSL and FSL studies as well as the existing and potential KG construction solutions, and then systematically categorized and summarized KG-aware ZSL and FSL methods, dividing them into different paradigms such as the mapping-based, the data augmentation, the propagation-based and the optimization-based. We next presented different applications, including not only KG augmented tasks in Computer Vision and Natural Language Processing (e.g., image classification, text classification and knowledge extraction), but also tasks for KG curation (e.g., inductive KG completion), and some typical evaluation resources for each task. We eventually discussed some challenges and future directions on aspects such as new learning and reasoning paradigms, and the construction of high quality KGs.