A few years ago, when I was still working for IBM, I managed an AI project for a bank. During the final phase, my team and I went to the steering committee to present the results. Proud as the project leader, I have shown that the model has achieved 98 percent accuracy in detecting fraudulent transactions. In my manager's eyes, I could see a general panic when I explained that we used an artificial neural network, that it worked with a synapse system and weight adjustments. Although very efficient, there was no way to understand its logic objectively. Even if it was based on real facts, this raw explanation conditioned the project's continuity at that time, unless we could provide a full explanation that the senior executive could understand and trust.
Artificial intelligence (AI) has been integrated into every part of our lives. A chatbot, enabled by advanced Natural language processing (NLP), pops to assist you while you surf a webpage. A voice recognition system can authenticate you in order to unlock your account. A drone or driverless car can service operations or access areas that are humanly impossible. Machine-learning (ML) predictions are utilized to all kinds of decision making.
Decades of research in artificial intelligence (AI) have produced formidable technologies that are providing immense benefit to industry, government, and society. AI systems can now translate across multiple languages, identify objects in images and video, streamline manufacturing processes, and control cars. The deployment of AI systems has not only created a trillion-dollar industry that is projected to quadruple in three years, but has also exposed the need to make AI systems fair, explainable, trustworthy, and secure. Future AI systems will rightfully be expected to reason effectively about the world in which they (and people) operate, handling complex tasks and responsibilities effectively and ethically, engaging in meaningful communication, and improving their awareness through experience. Achieving the full potential of AI technologies poses research challenges that require a radical transformation of the AI research enterprise, facilitated by significant and sustained investment. These are the major recommendations of a recent community effort coordinated by the Computing Community Consortium and the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence to formulate a Roadmap for AI research and development over the next two decades.
This is an integrative review that address the question, "What makes for a good explanation?" with reference to AI systems. Pertinent literatures are vast. Thus, this review is necessarily selective. That said, most of the key concepts and issues are expressed in this Report. The Report encapsulates the history of computer science efforts to create systems that explain and instruct (intelligent tutoring systems and expert systems). The Report expresses the explainability issues and challenges in modern AI, and presents capsule views of the leading psychological theories of explanation. Certain articles stand out by virtue of their particular relevance to XAI, and their methods, results, and key points are highlighted. It is recommended that AI/XAI researchers be encouraged to include in their research reports fuller details on their empirical or experimental methods, in the fashion of experimental psychology research reports: details on Participants, Instructions, Procedures, Tasks, Dependent Variables (operational definitions of the measures and metrics), Independent Variables (conditions), and Control Conditions.
Weighted bipolar argumentation frameworks allow modeling decision problems and online discussions by defining arguments and their relationships. The strength of arguments can be computed based on an initial weight and the strength of attacking and supporting arguments. While previous approaches assumed an acyclic argumentation graph and successively set arguments' strength based on the strength of their parents, recently continuous dynamical systems have been proposed as an alternative. Continuous models update arguments' strength simultaneously and continuously. While there are currently no analytical guarantees for convergence in general graphs, experiments show that continuous models can converge quickly in large cyclic graphs with thousands of arguments. Here, we focus on the high-level ideas of this approach and explain key results and applications. We also introduce Attractor, a Java library that can be used to solve weighted bipolar argumentation problems. Attractor contains implementations of several discrete and continuous models and numerical algorithms to compute solutions. It also provides base classes that can be used to implement, to evaluate and to compare continuous models easily.