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Explanation & Argumentation: Instructional Materials


A Logic-Based Explanation Generation Framework for Classical and Hybrid Planning Problems

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

In human-aware planning systems, a planning agent might need to explain its plan to a human user when that plan appears to be non-feasible or sub-optimal. A popular approach, called model reconciliation, has been proposed as a way to bring the model of the human user closer to the agent’s model. To do so, the agent provides an explanation that can be used to update the model of human such that the agent’s plan is feasible or optimal to the human user. Existing approaches to solve this problem have been based on automated planning methods and have been limited to classical planning problems only. In this paper, we approach the model reconciliation problem from a different perspective, that of knowledge representation and reasoning, and demonstrate that our approach can be applied not only to classical planning problems but also hybrid systems planning problems with durative actions and events/processes. In particular, we propose a logic-based framework for explanation generation, where given a knowledge base KBa (of an agent) and a knowledge base KBh (of a human user), each encoding their knowledge of a planning problem, and that KBa entails a query q (e.g., that a proposed plan of the agent is valid), the goal is to identify an explanation ε ⊆ KBa such that when it is used to update KBh, then the updated KBh also entails q. More specifically, we make the following contributions in this paper: (1) We formally define the notion of logic-based explanations in the context of model reconciliation problems; (2) We introduce a number of cost functions that can be used to reflect preferences between explanations; (3) We present algorithms to compute explanations for both classical planning and hybrid systems planning problems; and (4) We empirically evaluate their performance on such problems. Our empirical results demonstrate that, on classical planning problems, our approach is faster than the state of the art when the explanations are long or when the size of the knowledge base is small (e.g., the plans to be explained are short). They also demonstrate that our approach is efficient for hybrid systems planning problems. Finally, we evaluate the real-world efficacy of explanations generated by our algorithms through a controlled human user study, where we develop a proof-of-concept visualization system and use it as a medium for explanation communication.


Explainable Al (XAI) with Python

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Importance of XAI in modern world Differentiation of glass box, white box and black box ML models Categorization of XAI on the basis of their scope, agnosticity, data types and explanation techniques Trade-off between accuracy and interpretability Application of InterpretML package from Microsoft to generate explanations of ML models Need of counterfactual and contrastive explanations Working principles and mathematical modeling of XAI techniques like LIME, SHAP, DiCE, LRP, counterfactual and contrastive explanationss Application of XAI techniques like LIME, SHAP, DiCE, LRP to generate explanations for black-box models for tabular, textual, and image datasets. Application of XAI techniques like LIME, SHAP, DiCE, LRP to generate explanations for black-box models for tabular, textual, and image datasets. This course provides detailed insights into the latest developments in Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI). Our reliance on artificial intelligence models is increasing day by day, and it's also becoming equally important to explain how and why AI makes a particular decision. Recent laws have also caused the urgency about explaining and defending the decisions made by AI systems.


Conversational Agents: Theory and Applications

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this chapter, we provide a review of conversational agents (CAs), discussing chatbots, intended for casual conversation with a user, as well as task-oriented agents that generally engage in discussions intended to reach one or several specific goals, often (but not always) within a specific domain. We also consider the concept of embodied conversational agents, briefly reviewing aspects such as character animation and speech processing. The many different approaches for representing dialogue in CAs are discussed in some detail, along with methods for evaluating such agents, emphasizing the important topics of accountability and interpretability. A brief historical overview is given, followed by an extensive overview of various applications, especially in the fields of health and education. We end the chapter by discussing benefits and potential risks regarding the societal impact of current and future CA technology.


Explainable Decision Making with Lean and Argumentative Explanations

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

It is widely acknowledged that transparency of automated decision making is crucial for deployability of intelligent systems, and explaining the reasons why some decisions are "good" and some are not is a way to achieving this transparency. We consider two variants of decision making, where "good" decisions amount to alternatives (i) meeting "most" goals, and (ii) meeting "most preferred" goals. We then define, for each variant and notion of "goodness" (corresponding to a number of existing notions in the literature), explanations in two formats, for justifying the selection of an alternative to audiences with differing needs and competences: lean explanations, in terms of goals satisfied and, for some notions of "goodness", alternative decisions, and argumentative explanations, reflecting the decision process leading to the selection, while corresponding to the lean explanations. To define argumentative explanations, we use assumption-based argumentation (ABA), a well-known form of structured argumentation. Specifically, we define ABA frameworks such that "good" decisions are admissible ABA arguments and draw argumentative explanations from dispute trees sanctioning this admissibility. Finally, we instantiate our overall framework for explainable decision-making to accommodate connections between goals and decisions in terms of decision graphs incorporating defeasible and non-defeasible information.


Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) with Python

#artificialintelligence

Our reliance on artificial intelligence models is increasing day by day, and it's also becoming equally important to explain how and why AI This course provides detailed insights into the latest developments in Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI). Our reliance on artificial intelligence models is increasing day by day, and it's also becoming equally important to explain how and why AI makes a particular decision. Recent laws have also caused the urgency about explaining and defending the decisions made by AI systems. This course discusses tools and techniques using Python to visualize, explain, and build trustworthy AI systems. This course covers the working principle and mathematical modeling of LIME (Local Interpretable Model Agnostic Explanations), SHAP (SHapley Additive exPlanations) for generating local and global explanations.


Explainability Is in the Mind of the Beholder: Establishing the Foundations of Explainable Artificial Intelligence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Explainable artificial intelligence and interpretable machine learning are research fields growing in importance. Yet, the underlying concepts remain somewhat elusive and lack generally agreed definitions. While recent inspiration from social sciences has refocused the work on needs and expectations of human recipients, the field still misses a concrete conceptualisation. We take steps towards addressing this challenge by reviewing the philosophical and social foundations of human explainability, which we then translate into the technological realm. In particular, we scrutinise the notion of algorithmic black boxes and the spectrum of understanding determined by explanatory processes and explainees' background knowledge. This approach allows us to define explainability as (logical) reasoning applied to transparent insights (into black boxes) interpreted under certain background knowledge - a process that engenders understanding in explainees. We then employ this conceptualisation to revisit the much disputed trade-off between transparency and predictive power and its implications for ante-hoc and post-hoc explainers as well as fairness and accountability engendered by explainability. We furthermore discuss components of the machine learning workflow that may be in need of interpretability, building on a range of ideas from human-centred explainability, with a focus on explainees, contrastive statements and explanatory processes. Our discussion reconciles and complements current research to help better navigate open questions - rather than attempting to address any individual issue - thus laying a solid foundation for a grounded discussion and future progress of explainable artificial intelligence and interpretable machine learning. We conclude with a summary of our findings, revisiting the human-centred explanatory process needed to achieve the desired level of algorithmic transparency.


Data Science Books You Should Start Reading in 2021

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Aside from the real fact that Data Science is one of the highest-paid, hottest and most popular fields today, it's also somehow worth noting that it will certainly remain kind of innovative and also challenging for another decade or more as well. Data science is unquestionably one of the most in-demand professions right now. Data Science job openings abound in the global market, with enticing compensation packages from reputable employers. Companies are hiring data scientists across the board (many of which have data science departments). For ambitious data scientists all across the world, prestigious educational institutes are offering exclusive curriculum, including online diploma courses.


Scope and Sense of Explainability for AI-Systems

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Certain aspects of the explainability of AI systems will be critically discussed. This especially with focus on the feasibility of the task of making every AI system explainable. Emphasis will be given to difficulties related to the explainability of highly complex and efficient AI systems which deliver decisions whose explanation defies classical logical schemes of cause and effect. AI systems have provably delivered unintelligible solutions which in retrospect were characterized as ingenious (for example move 37 of the game 2 of AlphaGo). It will be elaborated on arguments supporting the notion that if AI-solutions were to be discarded in advance because of their not being thoroughly comprehensible, a great deal of the potentiality of intelligent systems would be wasted.


Toward Explainable AI for Regression Models

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In addition to the impressive predictive power of machine learning (ML) models, more recently, explanation methods have emerged that enable an interpretation of complex non-linear learning models such as deep neural networks. Gaining a better understanding is especially important e.g. for safety-critical ML applications or medical diagnostics etc. While such Explainable AI (XAI) techniques have reached significant popularity for classifiers, so far little attention has been devoted to XAI for regression models (XAIR). In this review, we clarify the fundamental conceptual differences of XAI for regression and classification tasks, establish novel theoretical insights and analysis for XAIR, provide demonstrations of XAIR on genuine practical regression problems, and finally discuss the challenges remaining for the field.


Towards Explainable Artificial Intelligence in Banking and Financial Services

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) enables machines to learn from human experience, adjust to new inputs, and perform human-like tasks. AI is progressing rapidly and is transforming the way businesses operate, from process automation to cognitive augmentation of tasks and intelligent process/data analytics. However, the main challenge for human users would be to understand and appropriately trust the result of AI algorithms and methods. In this paper, to address this challenge, we study and analyze the recent work done in Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) methods and tools. We introduce a novel XAI process, which facilitates producing explainable models while maintaining a high level of learning performance. We present an interactive evidence-based approach to assist human users in comprehending and trusting the results and output created by AI-enabled algorithms. We adopt a typical scenario in the Banking domain for analyzing customer transactions. We develop a digital dashboard to facilitate interacting with the algorithm results and discuss how the proposed XAI method can significantly improve the confidence of data scientists in understanding the result of AI-enabled algorithms.