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Abstract: Dimension reduction is an important tool for analyzing high-dimensional data. The predictor envelope is a method of dimension reduction for regression that assumes certain linear combinations of the predictors are immaterial to the regression. The method can result in substantial gains in estimation efficiency and prediction accuracy over traditional maximum likelihood and least squares estimates. While predictor envelopes have been developed and studied for independent data, no work has been done adapting predictor envelopes to spatial data. In this work, the predictor envelope is adapted to a popular spatial model to form the spatial predictor envelope (SPE).

Ghojogh, Benyamin, Ghodsi, Ali, Karray, Fakhri, Crowley, Mark

This is a tutorial and survey paper on unification of spectral dimensionality reduction methods, kernel learning by Semidefinite Programming (SDP), Maximum Variance Unfolding (MVU) or Semidefinite Embedding (SDE), and its variants. We first explain how the spectral dimensionality reduction methods can be unified as kernel Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with different kernels. This unification can be interpreted as eigenfunction learning or representation of kernel in terms of distance matrix. Then, since the spectral methods are unified as kernel PCA, we say let us learn the best kernel for unfolding the manifold of data to its maximum variance. We first briefly introduce kernel learning by SDP for the transduction task. Then, we explain MVU in detail. Various versions of supervised MVU using nearest neighbors graph, by class-wise unfolding, by Fisher criterion, and by colored MVU are explained. We also explain out-of-sample extension of MVU using eigenfunctions and kernel mapping. Finally, we introduce other variants of MVU including action respecting embedding, relaxed MVU, and landmark MVU for big data.

Ghojogh, Benyamin, Ghodsi, Ali, Karray, Fakhri, Crowley, Mark

This is a tutorial and survey paper for nonlinear dimensionality and feature extraction methods which are based on the Laplacian of graph of data. We first introduce adjacency matrix, definition of Laplacian matrix, and the interpretation of Laplacian. Then, we cover the cuts of graph and spectral clustering which applies clustering in a subspace of data. Different optimization variants of Laplacian eigenmap and its out-of-sample extension are explained. Thereafter, we introduce the locality preserving projection and its kernel variant as linear special cases of Laplacian eigenmap. Versions of graph embedding are then explained which are generalized versions of Laplacian eigenmap and locality preserving projection. Finally, diffusion map is introduced which is a method based on Laplacian of data and random walks on the data graph.

Udemy course Feature Engineering and Dimensionality Reduction Feature Selection vs Dimensionality Reduction While both methods are used for reducing the number of features in a dataset, there is an important difference. Feature selection is simply selecting and excluding given features without changing them. Dimensionality reduction transforms features into a lower dimension NED New What you'll learn The importance of Feature Engineering and Dimensionality Reduction in Data Science. Practical explanation and live coding with Python. Description Artificial Intelligence (AI) is indispensable these days.

Dimensionality reduction is an unsupervised learning technique. Nevertheless, it can be used as a data transform pre-processing step for machine learning algorithms on classification and regression predictive modeling datasets with supervised learning algorithms. There are many dimensionality reduction algorithms to choose from and no single best algorithm for all cases. Instead, it is a good idea to explore a range of dimensionality reduction algorithms and different configurations for each algorithm. In this tutorial, you will discover how to fit and evaluate top dimensionality reduction algorithms in Python.

Reducing the number of input variables for a predictive model is referred to as dimensionality reduction. Fewer input variables can result in a simpler predictive model that may have better performance when making predictions on new data. Linear Discriminant Analysis, or LDA for short, is a predictive modeling algorithm for multi-class classification. It can also be used as a dimensionality reduction technique, providing a projection of a training dataset that best separates the examples by their assigned class. The ability to use Linear Discriminant Analysis for dimensionality reduction often surprises most practitioners.

Hosseini, Babak, Hammer, Barbara

Dimensionality reduction (DR) on the manifold includes effective methods which project the data from an implicit relational space onto a vectorial space. Regardless of the achievements in this area, these algorithms suffer from the lack of interpretation of the projection dimensions. Therefore, it is often difficult to explain the physical meaning behind the embedding dimensions. In this research, we propose the interpretable kernel DR algorithm (I-KDR) as a new algorithm which maps the data from the feature space to a lower dimensional space where the classes are more condensed with less overlapping. Besides, the algorithm creates the dimensions upon local contributions of the data samples, which makes it easier to interpret them by class labels. Additionally, we efficiently fuse the DR with feature selection task to select the most relevant features of the original space to the discriminative objective. Based on the empirical evidence, I-KDR provides better interpretations for embedding dimensions as well as higher discriminative performance in the embedded space compared to the state-of-the-art and popular DR algorithms.

Wiskott, Laurenz, Schönfeld, Fabian

Many problems in machine learning can be expressed by means of a graph with nodes representing training samples and edges representing the relationship between samples in terms of similarity, temporal proximity, or label information. Graphs can in turn be represented by matrices. A special example is the Laplacian matrix, which allows us to assign each node a value that varies only little between strongly connected nodes and more between distant nodes. Such an assignment can be used to extract a useful feature representation, find a good embedding of data in a low dimensional space, or perform clustering on the original samples. In these lecture notes we first introduce the Laplacian matrix and then present a small number of algorithms designed around it.

An important step in data analysis is data exploration and representation. In this tutorial we will see how by combining a technique called Principal Component Analysis (PCA) together with Cluster Analysis we can represent in a two-dimensional space data defined in a higher dimensional one while, at the same time, being able to group this data in similar groups or clusters and find hidden relationships in our data. More concretely, PCA reduces data dimensionality by finding principal components. These are the directions of maximum variation in a dataset. By reducing a dataset original features or variables to a reduced set of new ones based on the principal components, we end up with the minimum number of variables that keep the maximum amount of variation or information about how the data is distributed. If we end up with just two of these new variables, we will be able to represent each sample in our data in a two-dimensional chart (e.g. a scatterplot). As an unsupervised data analysis technique, clustering organises data samples by proximity based on its variables.