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Directed Networks: Instructional Materials


Essential Resources to Learn Bayesian Statistics - KDnuggets

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In this post, I summarize a series of resources to get started with Bayesian Statistics. I compiled these references based on my experience and opinion as to what a good introduction and next steps are in this process. This is not an academic curriculum or anything tremendously rigorous, but it is a comprehensive list that will surely get you embarked on the journey to revisiting/starting your statistics. Many of the references below were recommended to me in several workshops I've attended, and I want to share with those like me that want to be better at statistics and Machine Learning (ML). The first resource I can think of out there for beginners interested in Bayesian statistics and modeling is Richard McElreath's Statistical Rethinking.


Machine Learning Tutorial

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As businesses interact with customers and collect large volumes of data, they have started appreciating the importance of machine learning in their business. By collecting insights from the data, companies can work better and gain a competitive edge over others. The Machine Learning tutorial will help you understand machine learning, it's working principles, and how it can be used every day. As an emerging field, Machine Learning offers immense opportunities for those looking at a highly impactful and satisfying career in IT. The Machine Learning market is expected to reach USD 8.81 Billion by 2022, with a growth rate of 44.1-per cent.



Bayes' Theorem in Layman's Terms

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If you have difficulty in understanding Bayes' theorem, trust me you are not alone. In this tutorial, I'll help you to cross that bridge step by step. Let's consider Alex and Brenda are two people in your office, When you are working you saw someone walked in front of you, and you didn't notice who is she/he. Now I'll give you extra information, Let's calculate the probabilities with this new information, Probability that Alex is the person passed by is 2/5 i.e, Probability that Brenda is the person passed by is 3/5 i.e, Probabilities that we are calculated before the new information are called Prior, and probabilities that we are calculated after the new information are called Posterior. Consider a scenario where, Alex comes to the office 3 days a week, and Brenda comes to the office 1 day a week.


Optimal Learning for Sequential Decisions in Laboratory Experimentation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The process of discovery in the physical, biological and medical sciences can be painstakingly slow. Most experiments fail, and the time from initiation of research until a new advance reaches commercial production can span 20 years. This tutorial is aimed to provide experimental scientists with a foundation in the science of making decisions. Using numerical examples drawn from the experiences of the authors, the article describes the fundamental elements of any experimental learning problem. It emphasizes the important role of belief models, which include not only the best estimate of relationships provided by prior research, previous experiments and scientific expertise, but also the uncertainty in these relationships. We introduce the concept of a learning policy, and review the major categories of policies. We then introduce a policy, known as the knowledge gradient, that maximizes the value of information from each experiment. We bring out the importance of reducing uncertainty, and illustrate this process for different belief models.


Bayesian Machine Learning in Python: A/B Testing

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Link: Bayesian Machine Learning in Python: A/B Testing coupon code udemy Traditional A/B testing has been around for a long time, and it's full of approximations and confusing definitions. In this course, while we will do traditional A/B testing in order to appreciate its complexity, what we will eventually get to is the Bayesian machine learning way of doing things. First, we'll see if we can improve on ... Bestseller by Lazy Programmer Inc. What you'll learn Use adaptive algorithms to improve A/B testing performance Understand the difference between Bayesian and frequentist statistics Apply Bayesian methods to A/B testing Description This course is all about A/B testing. A/B testing is used everywhere.


A Tutorial on Learning With Bayesian Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

A Bayesian network is a graphical model that encodes probabilistic relationships among variables of interest. When used in conjunction with statistical techniques, the graphical model has several advantages for data analysis. One, because the model encodes dependencies among all variables, it readily handles situations where some data entries are missing. Two, a Bayesian network can be used to learn causal relationships, and hence can be used to gain understanding about a problem domain and to predict the consequences of intervention. Three, because the model has both a causal and probabilistic semantics, it is an ideal representation for combining prior knowledge (which often comes in causal form) and data. Four, Bayesian statistical methods in conjunction with Bayesian networks offer an efficient and principled approach for avoiding the overfitting of data. In this paper, we discuss methods for constructing Bayesian networks from prior knowledge and summarize Bayesian statistical methods for using data to improve these models. With regard to the latter task, we describe methods for learning both the parameters and structure of a Bayesian network, including techniques for learning with incomplete data. In addition, we relate Bayesian-network methods for learning to techniques for supervised and unsupervised learning. We illustrate the graphical-modeling approach using a real-world case study.


Machine Learning using Python : Learn Hands-On

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Learn to use Python, the ideal programming language for Machine Learning, with this comprehensive course from Hands-On System. Python plays a important role in the adoption of Machine Learning (ML) in the business environment. Now a day's Machine Learning is one of the most sought after skills in industry. After completion of this course students will understand and apply the concepts of machine learning and applied statistics for real world problems. The topics we will be covering in this course are: Python libraries for data manipulation and visualization such as numpy, matplotlib and pandas.


Causality matters in medical imaging

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This article discusses how the language of causality can shed new light on the major challenges in machine learning for medical imaging: 1) data scarcity, which is the limited availability of high-quality annotations, and 2) data mismatch, whereby a trained algorithm may fail to generalize in clinical practice. Looking at these challenges through the lens of causality allows decisions about data collection, annotation procedures, and learning strategies to be made (and scrutinized) more transparently. We discuss how causal relationships between images and annotations can not only have profound effects on the performance of predictive models, but may even dictate which learning strategies should be considered in the first place. For example, we conclude that semi-supervision may be unsuitable for image segmentation---one of the possibly surprising insights from our causal analysis, which is illustrated with representative real-world examples of computer-aided diagnosis (skin lesion classification in dermatology) and radiotherapy (automated contouring of tumours). We highlight that being aware of and accounting for the causal relationships in medical imaging data is important for the safe development of machine learning and essential for regulation and responsible reporting. To facilitate this we provide step-by-step recommendations for future studies.


Learn classification algorithms using Python and scikit-learn

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This tutorial is part of the Machine learning for developers learning path. In this tutorial, we describe the basics of solving a classification-based machine learning problem, and give you a comparative study of some of the current most popular algorithms. In the open Notebook, click Run to run the cells one at a time. The rest of the tutorial follows the order of the Notebook. Classification is when the feature to be predicted contains categories of values.