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Inductive Learning: Instructional Materials


What is Training Data and Why Is It Important for AI and Computer Vision? Find Out Here.

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Simply put, training data is a dataset that is used to train a machine learning model. The purpose of training data is to provide the model with examples of how it should behave in different situations. Without training data, it would be very difficult for machines to learn how to perform specific tasks. In this article, we will discuss why training data is important for AI and computer vision, and we will provide some tips on where you can find high-quality training datasets. Training data is important for AI and computer vision because it allows machines to learn from examples.


Self-supervised learning tutorial: Implementing SimCLR with pytorch lightning

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In this hands-on tutorial, we will provide you with a reimplementation of SimCLR self-supervised learning method for pretraining robust feature extractors. This method is fairly general and can be applied to any vision dataset, as well as different downstream tasks. In a previous tutorial, I wrote a bit of a background on the self-supervised learning arena. Time to get into your first project by running SimCLR on a small dataset with 100K unlabelled images called STL10. Code is available on Github.


Top resources to learn decision trees in 2022

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Decision trees are a supervised learning method used to build a model that predicts the value of a target variable by learning simple decision rules from the data features. DTs are used for both classification and regression and are simple to understand and interpret. Below, we have listed down the top online courses, YouTube videos and guides for enthusiasts to master decision trees. The course by CodeAcademy focuses on teaching developers how to build and use decision trees and random forests. The course looks at two methods in detail: Gini impurity and Information Gain.


Predictive Inference with Weak Supervision

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Consider the typical supervised learning pipeline that we teach students learning statistical machine learning: we collect data in (X, Y) pairs, where Y is a label or target to be predicted; we pick a model and loss measuring the fidelity of the model to observed data; we choose the model minimizing the loss and validate it on held-out data. This picture obscures what is becoming one of the major challenges in this endeavor: that of actually collecting highquality labeled data [44, 13, 38]. Hand labeling large-scale training sets is often impractically expensive. Consider, as simple motivation, a ranking problem: a prediction is an ordered list of a set of items, yet available feedback is likely to be incomplete and partial, such as a top element (for example, in web search a user clicks on a single preferred link, or in a grocery, an individual buys one kind of milk but provides no feedback on the other brands present). Developing methods to leverage such partial and weak feedback is therefore becoming a major focus, and researchers have developed methods to transform weak and noisy labels into a dataset with strong, "gold-standard" labels [38, 56]. In this paper, we adopt this weakly labeled setting, but instead of considering model fitting and the construction of strong labels, we focus on validation, model confidence, and predictive inference, moving beyond point predictions and single labels. Our goal is to develop methods to rigorously quantify the confidence a practitioner should have in a model given only weak labels.


Separating Rule Discovery and Global Solution Composition in a Learning Classifier System

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The utilization of digital agents to support crucial decision making is increasing in many industrial scenarios. However, trust in suggestions made by these agents is hard to achieve, though essential for profiting from their application, resulting in a need for explanations for both the decision making process as well as the model itself. For many systems, such as common deep learning black-box models, achieving at least some explainability requires complex post-processing, while other systems profit from being, to a reasonable extent, inherently interpretable. In this paper we propose an easily interpretable rule-based learning system specifically designed and thus especially suited for these scenarios and compare it on a set of regression problems against XCSF, a prominent rule-based learning system with a long research history. One key advantage of our system is that the rules' conditions and which rules compose a solution to the problem are evolved separately. We utilise independent rule fitnesses which allows users to specifically tailor their model structure to fit the given requirements for explainability. We find that the results of SupRB2's evaluation are comparable to XCSF's while allowing easier control of model structure and showing a substantially smaller sensitivity to random seeds and data splits. This increased control aids in subsequently providing explanations for both the training and the final structure of the model.


ColloSSL: Collaborative Self-Supervised Learning for Human Activity Recognition

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

A major bottleneck in training robust Human-Activity Recognition models (HAR) is the need for large-scale labeled sensor datasets. Because labeling large amounts of sensor data is an expensive task, unsupervised and semi-supervised learning techniques have emerged that can learn good features from the data without requiring any labels. In this paper, we extend this line of research and present a novel technique called Collaborative Self-Supervised Learning (ColloSSL) which leverages unlabeled data collected from multiple devices worn by a user to learn high-quality features of the data. A key insight that underpins the design of ColloSSL is that unlabeled sensor datasets simultaneously captured by multiple devices can be viewed as natural transformations of each other, and leveraged to generate a supervisory signal for representation learning. We present three technical innovations to extend conventional self-supervised learning algorithms to a multi-device setting: a Device Selection approach which selects positive and negative devices to enable contrastive learning, a Contrastive Sampling algorithm which samples positive and negative examples in a multi-device setting, and a loss function called Multi-view Contrastive Loss which extends standard contrastive loss to a multi-device setting. Our experimental results on three multi-device datasets show that ColloSSL outperforms both fully-supervised and semi-supervised learning techniques in majority of the experiment settings, resulting in an absolute increase of upto 7.9% in F_1 score compared to the best performing baselines. We also show that ColloSSL outperforms the fully-supervised methods in a low-data regime, by just using one-tenth of the available labeled data in the best case.


Learning Fast, Learning Slow: A General Continual Learning Method based on Complementary Learning System

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Humans excel at continually learning from an ever-changing environment whereas it remains a challenge for deep neural networks which exhibit catastrophic forgetting. The complementary learning system (CLS) theory suggests that the interplay between rapid instance-based learning and slow structured learning in the brain is crucial for accumulating and retaining knowledge. Here, we propose CLS-ER, a novel dual memory experience replay (ER) method which maintains short-term and long-term semantic memories that interact with the episodic memory. Our method employs an effective replay mechanism whereby new knowledge is acquired while aligning the decision boundaries with the semantic memories. CLS-ER does not utilize the task boundaries or make any assumption about the distribution of the data which makes it versatile and suited for "general continual learning". Our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance on standard benchmarks as well as more realistic general continual learning settings. Continual learning (CL) refers to the ability of a learning agent to continuously interact with a dynamic environment and process a stream of information to acquire new knowledge while consolidating and retaining previously obtained knowledge (Parisi et al., 2019). This ability to continuously learn from a changing environment is a hallmark of intelligence and a critical missing component in our quest towards making our models truly intelligent. The major challenge towards enabling CL in deep neural networks (DNNs) is that the continual acquisition of incrementally available information from non-stationary data distributions generally leads to catastrophic forgetting whereby the performance of the model on previously learned tasks drops drastically as it learns new tasks (McCloskey & Cohen, 1989). Several approaches have been proposed to address the issue of catastrophic forgetting in CL. Amongst these, rehearsal-based methods have proven to be more effective in challenging CL tasks (Farquhar & Gal, 2018). However, an optimal approach for replaying memory samples and constraining the model update to efficiently consolidate knowledge remains an open question.


Adaptive Memory Networks with Self-supervised Learning for Unsupervised Anomaly Detection

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Unsupervised anomaly detection aims to build models to effectively detect unseen anomalies by only training on the normal data. Although previous reconstruction-based methods have made fruitful progress, their generalization ability is limited due to two critical challenges. First, the training dataset only contains normal patterns, which limits the model generalization ability. Second, the feature representations learned by existing models often lack representativeness which hampers the ability to preserve the diversity of normal patterns. In this paper, we propose a novel approach called Adaptive Memory Network with Self-supervised Learning (AMSL) to address these challenges and enhance the generalization ability in unsupervised anomaly detection. Based on the convolutional autoencoder structure, AMSL incorporates a self-supervised learning module to learn general normal patterns and an adaptive memory fusion module to learn rich feature representations. Experiments on four public multivariate time series datasets demonstrate that AMSL significantly improves the performance compared to other state-of-the-art methods. Specifically, on the largest CAP sleep stage detection dataset with 900 million samples, AMSL outperforms the second-best baseline by \textbf{4}\%+ in both accuracy and F1 score. Apart from the enhanced generalization ability, AMSL is also more robust against input noise.


Self-Supervised Learning Advances Medical Image Classification

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Posted by Shekoofeh Azizi, AI Resident, Google Research In recent years, there has been increasing interest in applying deep learning to ...


Improving Self-supervised Learning with Automated Unsupervised Outlier Arbitration

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Our work reveals a structured shortcoming of the existing mainstream self-supervised learning methods. Whereas self-supervised learning frameworks usually take the prevailing perfect instance level invariance hypothesis for granted, we carefully investigate the pitfalls behind. Particularly, we argue that the existing augmentation pipeline for generating multiple positive views naturally introduces out-of-distribution (OOD) samples that undermine the learning of the downstream tasks. Generating diverse positive augmentations on the input does not always pay off in benefiting downstream tasks. To overcome this inherent deficiency, we introduce a lightweight latent variable model UOTA, targeting the view sampling issue for self-supervised learning. UOTA adaptively searches for the most important sampling region to produce views, and provides viable choice for outlier-robust self-supervised learning approaches. Our method directly generalizes to many mainstream self-supervised learning approaches, regardless of the loss's nature contrastive or not. We empirically show UOTA's advantage over the state-of-the-art self-supervised paradigms with evident margin, which well justifies the existence of the OOD sample issue embedded in the existing approaches. Especially, we theoretically prove that the merits of the proposal boil down to guaranteed estimator variance and bias reduction. Code is available: at https://github.com/ssl-codelab/uota.