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Learning and Reasoning for Robot Dialog and Navigation Tasks

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Reinforcement learning and probabilistic reasoning algorithms aim at learning from interaction experiences and reasoning with probabilistic contextual knowledge respectively. In this research, we develop algorithms for robot task completions, while looking into the complementary strengths of reinforcement learning and probabilistic reasoning techniques. The robots learn from trial-and-error experiences to augment their declarative knowledge base, and the augmented knowledge can be used for speeding up the learning process in potentially different tasks. We have implemented and evaluated the developed algorithms using mobile robots conducting dialog and navigation tasks. From the results, we see that our robot's performance can be improved by both reasoning with human knowledge and learning from task-completion experience. More interestingly, the robot was able to learn from navigation tasks to improve its dialog strategies.


A Review on Computational Intelligence Techniques in Cloud and Edge Computing

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Cloud computing (CC) is a centralized computing paradigm that accumulates resources centrally and provides these resources to users through Internet. Although CC holds a large number of resources, it may not be acceptable by real-time mobile applications, as it is usually far away from users geographically. On the other hand, edge computing (EC), which distributes resources to the network edge, enjoys increasing popularity in the applications with low-latency and high-reliability requirements. EC provides resources in a decentralized manner, which can respond to users' requirements faster than the normal CC, but with limited computing capacities. As both CC and EC are resource-sensitive, several big issues arise, such as how to conduct job scheduling, resource allocation, and task offloading, which significantly influence the performance of the whole system. To tackle these issues, many optimization problems have been formulated. These optimization problems usually have complex properties, such as non-convexity and NP-hardness, which may not be addressed by the traditional convex optimization-based solutions. Computational intelligence (CI), consisting of a set of nature-inspired computational approaches, recently exhibits great potential in addressing these optimization problems in CC and EC. This paper provides an overview of research problems in CC and EC and recent progresses in addressing them with the help of CI techniques. Informative discussions and future research trends are also presented, with the aim of offering insights to the readers and motivating new research directions.


Kernel Taylor-Based Value Function Approximation for Continuous-State Markov Decision Processes

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We propose a principled kernel-based policy iteration algorithm to solve the continuous-state Markov Decision Processes (MDPs). In contrast to most decision-theoretic planning frameworks, which assume fully known state transition models, we design a method that eliminates such a strong assumption, which is oftentimes extremely difficult to engineer in reality. To achieve this, we first apply the second-order Taylor expansion of the value function. The Bellman optimality equation is then approximated by a partial differential equation, which only relies on the first and second moments of the transition model. By combining the kernel representation of value function, we then design an efficient policy iteration algorithm whose policy evaluation step can be represented as a linear system of equations characterized by a finite set of supporting states. We have validated the proposed method through extensive simulations in both simplified and realistic planning scenarios, and the experiments show that our proposed approach leads to a much superior performance over several baseline methods.


A Survey of Behavior Trees in Robotics and AI

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Behavior Trees (BTs) were invented as a tool to enable modular AI in computer games, but have received an increasing amount of attention in the robotics community in the last decade. With rising demands on agent AI complexity, game programmers found that the Finite State Machines (FSM) that they used scaled poorly and were difficult to extend, adapt and reuse. In BTs, the state transition logic is not dispersed across the individual states, but organized in a hierarchical tree structure, with the states as leaves. This has a significant effect on modularity, which in turn simplifies both synthesis and analysis by humans and algorithms alike. These advantages are needed not only in game AI design, but also in robotics, as is evident from the research being done. In this paper we present a comprehensive survey of the topic of BTs in Artificial Intelligence and Robotic applications. The existing literature is described and categorized based on methods, application areas and contributions, and the paper is concluded with a list of open research challenges.


Bridging the Gap Between Probabilistic Model Checking and Probabilistic Planning: Survey, Compilations, and Empirical Comparison

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

Markov decision processes are of major interest in the planning community as well as in the model checking community. But in spite of the similarity in the considered formal models, the development of new techniques and methods happened largely independently in both communities. This work is intended as a beginning to unite the two research branches. We consider goal-reachability analysis as a common basis between both communities. The core of this paper is the translation from Jani, an overarching input language for quantitative model checkers, into the probabilistic planning domain definition language (PPDDL), and vice versa from PPDDL into Jani. These translations allow the creation of an overarching benchmark collection, including existing case studies from the model checking community, as well as benchmarks from the international probabilistic planning competitions (IPPC). We use this benchmark set as a basis for an extensive empirical comparison of various approaches from the model checking community, variants of value iteration, and MDP heuristic search algorithms developed by the AI planning community. On a per benchmark domain basis, techniques from one community can achieve state-ofthe-art performance in benchmarks of the other community. Across all benchmark domains of one community, the performance comparison is however in favor of the solvers and algorithms of that particular community. Reasons are the design of the benchmarks, as well as tool-related limitations. Our translation methods and benchmark collection foster crossfertilization between both communities, pointing out specific opportunities for widening the scope of solvers to different kinds of models, as well as for exchanging and adopting algorithms across communities.


Integrating Acting, Planning and Learning in Hierarchical Operational Models

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We present new planning and learning algorithms for RAE, the Refinement Acting Engine. RAE uses hierarchical operational models to perform tasks in dynamically changing environments. Our planning procedure, UPOM, does a UCT-like search in the space of operational models in order to find a near-optimal method to use for the task and context at hand. Our learning strategies acquire, from online acting experiences and/or simulated planning results, a mapping from decision contexts to method instances as well as a heuristic function to guide UPOM. Our experimental results show that UPOM and our learning strategies significantly improve RAE's performance in four test domains using two different metrics: efficiency and success ratio.


Path Planning Using Probability Tensor Flows

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Probability models have been proposed in the literature to account for "intelligent" behavior in many contexts. In this paper, probability propagation is applied to model agent's motion in potentially complex scenarios that include goals and obstacles. The backward flow provides precious background information to the agent's behavior, viz., inferences coming from the future determine the agent's actions. Probability tensors are layered in time in both directions in a manner similar to convolutional neural networks. The discussion is carried out with reference to a set of simulated grids where, despite the apparent task complexity, a solution, if feasible, is always found. The original model proposed by Attias has been extended to include non-absorbing obstacles, multiple goals and multiple agents. The emerging behaviors are very realistic and demonstrate great potentials of the application of this framework to real environments.


Towards Evaluating Plan Generation Approaches with Instructional Texts

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Recent research in behaviour understanding through language grounding has shown it is possible to automatically generate behaviour models from textual instructions. These models usually have goal-oriented structure and are modelled with different formalisms from the planning domain such as the Planning Domain Definition Language. One major problem that still remains is that there are no benchmark datasets for comparing the different model generation approaches, as each approach is usually evaluated on domain-specific application. To allow the objective comparison of different methods for model generation from textual instructions, in this report we introduce a dataset consisting of 83 textual instructions in English language, their refinement in a more structured form as well as manually developed plans for each of the instructions. The dataset is publicly available to the community.


Artificial Intelligence for Social Good: A Survey

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Its impact is drastic and real: Youtube's AIdriven recommendation system would present sports videos for days if one happens to watch a live baseball game on the platform [1]; email writing becomes much faster with machine learning (ML) based auto-completion [2]; many businesses have adopted natural language processing based chatbots as part of their customer services [3]. AI has also greatly advanced human capabilities in complex decision-making processes ranging from determining how to allocate security resources to protect airports [4] to games such as poker [5] and Go [6]. All such tangible and stunning progress suggests that an "AI summer" is happening. As some put it, "AI is the new electricity" [7]. Meanwhile, in the past decade, an emerging theme in the AI research community is the so-called "AI for social good" (AI4SG): researchers aim at developing AI methods and tools to address problems at the societal level and improve the wellbeing of the society.


Artificial Intelligence for Low-Resource Communities: Influence Maximization in an Uncertain World

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The potential of Artificial Intelligence (AI) to tackle challenging problems that afflict society is enormous, particularly in the areas of healthcare, conservation and public safety and security. Many problems in these domains involve harnessing social networks of under-served communities to enable positive change, e.g., using social networks of homeless youth to raise awareness about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and other STDs. Unfortunately, most of these real-world problems are characterized by uncertainties about social network structure and influence models, and previous research in AI fails to sufficiently address these uncertainties. This thesis addresses these shortcomings by advancing the state-of-the-art to a new generation of algorithms for interventions in social networks. In particular, this thesis describes the design and development of new influence maximization algorithms which can handle various uncertainties that commonly exist in real-world social networks. These algorithms utilize techniques from sequential planning problems and social network theory to develop new kinds of AI algorithms. Further, this thesis also demonstrates the real-world impact of these algorithms by describing their deployment in three pilot studies to spread awareness about HIV among actual homeless youth in Los Angeles. This represents one of the first-ever deployments of computer science based influence maximization algorithms in this domain. Our results show that our AI algorithms improved upon the state-of-the-art by 160% in the real-world. We discuss research and implementation challenges faced in deploying these algorithms, and lessons that can be gleaned for future deployment of such algorithms. The positive results from these deployments illustrate the enormous potential of AI in addressing societally relevant problems.