Accurate smartphone localization (< 1-meter error) for indoor navigation using only RSSI received from a set of BLE beacons remains a challenging problem, due to the inherent noise of RSSI measurements. To overcome the large variance in RSSI measurements, we propose a data-driven approach that uses a deep recurrent network, DeepBLE, to localize the smartphone using RSSI measured from multiple beacons in an environment. In particular, we focus on the ability of our approach to generalize across many smartphone brands (e.g., Apple, Samsung) and models (e.g., iPhone 8, S10). Towards this end, we collect a large-scale dataset of 15 hours of smartphone data, which consists of over 50,000 BLE beacon RSSI measurements collected from 47 beacons in a single building using 15 different popular smartphone models, along with precise 2D location annotations. Our experiments show that there is a very high variability of RSSI measurements across smartphone models (especially across brand), making it very difficult to apply supervised learning using only a subset of smartphone models. To address this challenge, we propose a novel statistic similarity loss (SSL) which enables our model to generalize to unseen phones using a semi-supervised learning approach. For known phones, the iPhone XR achieves the best mean distance error of 0.84 meters. For unknown phones, the Huawei Mate20 Pro shows the greatest improvement, cutting error by over 38\% from 2.62 meters to 1.63 meters error using our semi-supervised adaptation method.
It has been an exciting journey since the mobile communications and artificial intelligence were conceived 37 years and 64 years ago. While both fields evolved independently and profoundly changed communications and computing industries, the rapid convergence of 5G and deep learning is beginning to significantly transform the core communication infrastructure, network management and vertical applications. The paper first outlines the individual roadmaps of mobile communications and artificial intelligence in the early stage, with a concentration to review the era from 3G to 5G when AI and mobile communications started to converge. With regard to telecommunications artificial intelligence, the paper further introduces in detail the progress of artificial intelligence in the ecosystem of mobile communications. The paper then summarizes the classifications of AI in telecom ecosystems along with its evolution paths specified by various international telecommunications standardization bodies. Towards the next decade, the paper forecasts the prospective roadmap of telecommunications artificial intelligence. In line with 3GPP and ITU-R timeline of 5G & 6G, the paper further explores the network intelligence following 3GPP and ORAN routes respectively, experience and intention driven network management and operation, network AI signalling system, intelligent middle-office based BSS, intelligent customer experience management and policy control driven by BSS and OSS convergence, evolution from SLA to ELA, and intelligent private network for verticals. The paper is concluded with the vision that AI will reshape the future B5G or 6G landscape and we need pivot our R&D, standardizations, and ecosystem to fully take the unprecedented opportunities.
The exponential rise in mobile traffic originating from mobile devices highlights the need for making mobility management in future networks even more efficient and seamless than ever before. Ultra-Dense Cellular Network vision consisting of cells of varying sizes with conventional and mmWave bands is being perceived as the panacea for the eminent capacity crunch. However, mobility challenges in an ultra-dense heterogeneous network with motley of high frequency and mmWave band cells will be unprecedented due to plurality of handover instances, and the resulting signaling overhead and data interruptions for miscellany of devices. Similarly, issues like user tracking and cell discovery for mmWave with narrow beams need to be addressed before the ambitious gains of emerging mobile networks can be realized. Mobility challenges are further highlighted when considering the 5G deliverables of multi-Gbps wireless connectivity, <1ms latency and support for devices moving at maximum speed of 500km/h, to name a few. Despite its significance, few mobility surveys exist with the majority focused on adhoc networks. This paper is the first to provide a comprehensive survey on the panorama of mobility challenges in the emerging ultra-dense mobile networks. We not only present a detailed tutorial on 5G mobility approaches and highlight key mobility risks of legacy networks, but also review key findings from recent studies and highlight the technical challenges and potential opportunities related to mobility from the perspective of emerging ultra-dense cellular networks.
Mobile authentication using behavioral biometrics has been an active area of research. Existing research relies on building machine learning classifiers to recognize an individual's unique patterns. However, these classifiers are not powerful enough to learn the discriminative features. When implemented on the mobile devices, they face new challenges from the behavioral dynamics, data privacy and side-channel leaks. To address these challenges, we present a new framework to incorporate training on battery-powered mobile devices, so private data never leaves the device and training can be flexibly scheduled to adapt the behavioral patterns at runtime. We re-formulate the classification problem into deep metric learning to improve the discriminative power and design an effective countermeasure to thwart side-channel leaks by embedding a noise signature in the sensing signals without sacrificing too much usability. The experiments demonstrate authentication accuracy over 95% on three public datasets, a sheer 15% gain from multi-class classification with less data and robustness against brute-force and side-channel attacks with 99% and 90% success, respectively. We show the feasibility of training with mobile CPUs, where training 100 epochs takes less than 10 mins and can be boosted 3-5 times with feature transfer. Finally, we profile memory, energy and computational overhead. Our results indicate that training consumes lower energy than watching videos and slightly higher energy than playing games.
Cloud computing (CC) is a centralized computing paradigm that accumulates resources centrally and provides these resources to users through Internet. Although CC holds a large number of resources, it may not be acceptable by real-time mobile applications, as it is usually far away from users geographically. On the other hand, edge computing (EC), which distributes resources to the network edge, enjoys increasing popularity in the applications with low-latency and high-reliability requirements. EC provides resources in a decentralized manner, which can respond to users' requirements faster than the normal CC, but with limited computing capacities. As both CC and EC are resource-sensitive, several big issues arise, such as how to conduct job scheduling, resource allocation, and task offloading, which significantly influence the performance of the whole system. To tackle these issues, many optimization problems have been formulated. These optimization problems usually have complex properties, such as non-convexity and NP-hardness, which may not be addressed by the traditional convex optimization-based solutions. Computational intelligence (CI), consisting of a set of nature-inspired computational approaches, recently exhibits great potential in addressing these optimization problems in CC and EC. This paper provides an overview of research problems in CC and EC and recent progresses in addressing them with the help of CI techniques. Informative discussions and future research trends are also presented, with the aim of offering insights to the readers and motivating new research directions.
To study users' travel behaviour and travel time between origin and destination, researchers employ travel surveys. Although there is consensus in the field about the potential, after over ten years of research and field experimentation, Smartphone-based travel surveys still did not take off to a large scale. Here, computer intelligence algorithms take the role that operators have in Traditional Travel Surveys; since we train each algorithm on data, performances rest on the data quality, thus on the ground truth. Inaccurate validations affect negatively: labels, algorithms' training, travel diaries precision, and therefore data validation, within a very critical loop. Interestingly, boundaries are proven burdensome to push even for Machine Learning methods. To support optimal investment decisions for practitioners, we expose the drivers they should consider when assessing what they need against what they get. This paper highlights and examines the critical aspects of the underlying research and provides some recommendations: (i) from the device perspective, on the main physical limitations; (ii) from the application perspective, the methodological framework deployed for the automatic generation of travel diaries; (iii)from the ground truth perspective, the relationship between user interaction, methods, and data.
And to that end, the 34-year-old company already appears to have some wind in its sails. Revenues were down 17% year over year during the company's fiscal year fourth quarter, but it beat Wall Street's expectations and sent company stock up 7%. The company is hinging its future performance on 5G, and highlighted areas of momentum that it expects to fuel growth. CEO Steve Mollenkopf told analysts that the company is actively working with standards bodies to define forthcoming advancements in 5G and positioning itself to support the expansion of 5G into enterprise, industrial IoT, and automotive markets. "The complexity and expansion of cellular technologies beyond the smartphone into nearly every industry play directly to Qualcomm's strengths and are why we believe 5G will represent the single biggest opportunity in Qualcomm's history," he said during an earnings call, according to a Seeking Alpha transcript.
With the breakthroughs in deep learning, the recent years have witnessed a booming of artificial intelligence (AI) applications and services, spanning from personal assistant to recommendation systems to video/audio surveillance. More recently, with the proliferation of mobile computing and Internet-of-Things (IoT), billions of mobile and IoT devices are connected to the Internet, generating zillions Bytes of data at the network edge. Driving by this trend, there is an urgent need to push the AI frontiers to the network edge so as to fully unleash the potential of the edge big data. To meet this demand, edge computing, an emerging paradigm that pushes computing tasks and services from the network core to the network edge, has been widely recognized as a promising solution. The resulted new inter-discipline, edge AI or edge intelligence, is beginning to receive a tremendous amount of interest. However, research on edge intelligence is still in its infancy stage, and a dedicated venue for exchanging the recent advances of edge intelligence is highly desired by both the computer system and artificial intelligence communities. To this end, we conduct a comprehensive survey of the recent research efforts on edge intelligence. Specifically, we first review the background and motivation for artificial intelligence running at the network edge. We then provide an overview of the overarching architectures, frameworks and emerging key technologies for deep learning model towards training/inference at the network edge. Finally, we discuss future research opportunities on edge intelligence. We believe that this survey will elicit escalating attentions, stimulate fruitful discussions and inspire further research ideas on edge intelligence.
Cristiano Amon, a longtime veteran of chip giant Qualcomm and the company's president, is convinced you will see amazing things from 5G wireless technology, a cellular network upgrade being rolled out by AT&T and others that still remains something of a mystery to the average consumer. "Let's go for a trip down memory lane," he offered, in a chat with ZDNet inside the mammoth Qualcomm booth at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas this week. "Remember when 4G started, everyone was saying, Why do I need a hundred-megabit-per-second device?" he reflects. "Carriers told people it would be for connecting a laptop computer. "Now, we look at our smartphones and we say, How could we live without it?