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Artificial Intelligence: Research Impact on Key Industries; the Upper-Rhine Artificial Intelligence Symposium (UR-AI 2020)

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The TriRhenaTech alliance presents a collection of accepted papers of the cancelled tri-national 'Upper-Rhine Artificial Inteeligence Symposium' planned for 13th May 2020 in Karlsruhe. The TriRhenaTech alliance is a network of universities in the Upper-Rhine Trinational Metropolitan Region comprising of the German universities of applied sciences in Furtwangen, Kaiserslautern, Karlsruhe, and Offenburg, the Baden-Wuerttemberg Cooperative State University Loerrach, the French university network Alsace Tech (comprised of 14 'grandes \'ecoles' in the fields of engineering, architecture and management) and the University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland. The alliance's common goal is to reinforce the transfer of knowledge, research, and technology, as well as the cross-border mobility of students.


Lights and Shadows in Evolutionary Deep Learning: Taxonomy, Critical Methodological Analysis, Cases of Study, Learned Lessons, Recommendations and Challenges

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Much has been said about the fusion of bio-inspired optimization algorithms and Deep Learning models for several purposes: from the discovery of network topologies and hyper-parametric configurations with improved performance for a given task, to the optimization of the model's parameters as a replacement for gradient-based solvers. Indeed, the literature is rich in proposals showcasing the application of assorted nature-inspired approaches for these tasks. In this work we comprehensively review and critically examine contributions made so far based on three axes, each addressing a fundamental question in this research avenue: a) optimization and taxonomy (Why?), including a historical perspective, definitions of optimization problems in Deep Learning, and a taxonomy associated with an in-depth analysis of the literature, b) critical methodological analysis (How?), which together with two case studies, allows us to address learned lessons and recommendations for good practices following the analysis of the literature, and c) challenges and new directions of research (What can be done, and what for?). In summary, three axes - optimization and taxonomy, critical analysis, and challenges - which outline a complete vision of a merger of two technologies drawing up an exciting future for this area of fusion research.


Autonomous discovery in the chemical sciences part I: Progress

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This two-part review examines how automation has contributed to different aspects of discovery in the chemical sciences. In this first part, we describe a classification for discoveries of physical matter (molecules, materials, devices), processes, and models and how they are unified as search problems. We then introduce a set of questions and considerations relevant to assessing the extent of autonomy. Finally, we describe many case studies of discoveries accelerated by or resulting from computer assistance and automation from the domains of synthetic chemistry, drug discovery, inorganic chemistry, and materials science. These illustrate how rapid advancements in hardware automation and machine learning continue to transform the nature of experimentation and modelling. Part two reflects on these case studies and identifies a set of open challenges for the field.


A survey on Machine Learning-based Performance Improvement of Wireless Networks: PHY, MAC and Network layer

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This paper provides a systematic and comprehensive survey that reviews the latest research efforts focused on machine learning (ML) based performance improvement of wireless networks, while considering all layers of the protocol stack (PHY, MAC and network). First, the related work and paper contributions are discussed, followed by providing the necessary background on data-driven approaches and machine learning for non-machine learning experts to understand all discussed techniques. Then, a comprehensive review is presented on works employing ML-based approaches to optimize the wireless communication parameters settings to achieve improved network quality-of-service (QoS) and quality-of-experience (QoE). We first categorize these works into: radio analysis, MAC analysis and network prediction approaches, followed by subcategories within each. Finally, open challenges and broader perspectives are discussed.


Learning to Optimize Variational Quantum Circuits to Solve Combinatorial Problems

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Quantum computing is a computational paradigm with the potential to outperform classical methods for a variety of problems. Proposed recently, the Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm (QAOA) is considered as one of the leading candidates for demonstrating quantum advantage in the near term. QAOA is a variational hybrid quantum-classical algorithm for approximately solving combinatorial optimization problems. The quality of the solution obtained by QAOA for a given problem instance depends on the performance of the classical optimizer used to optimize the variational parameters. In this paper, we formulate the problem of finding optimal QAOA parameters as a learning task in which the knowledge gained from solving training instances can be leveraged to find high-quality solutions for unseen test instances. To this end, we develop two machine-learning-based approaches. Our first approach adopts a reinforcement learning (RL) framework to learn a policy network to optimize QAOA circuits. Our second approach adopts a kernel density estimation (KDE) technique to learn a generative model of optimal QAOA parameters. In both approaches, the training procedure is performed on small-sized problem instances that can be simulated on a classical computer; yet the learned RL policy and the generative model can be used to efficiently solve larger problems. Extensive simulations using the IBM Qiskit Aer quantum circuit simulator demonstrate that our proposed RL- and KDE-based approaches reduce the optimality gap by factors up to 30.15 when compared with other commonly used off-the-shelf optimizers.


Tackling Climate Change with Machine Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Climate change is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity, and we, as machine learning experts, may wonder how we can help. Here we describe how machine learning can be a powerful tool in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and helping society adapt to a changing climate. From smart grids to disaster management, we identify high impact problems where existing gaps can be filled by machine learning, in collaboration with other fields. Our recommendations encompass exciting research questions as well as promising business opportunities. We call on the machine learning community to join the global effort against climate change.


Machine Learning and System Identification for Estimation in Physical Systems

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In this thesis, we draw inspiration from both classical system identification and modern machine learning in order to solve estimation problems for real-world, physical systems. The main approach to estimation and learning adopted is optimization based. Concepts such as regularization will be utilized for encoding of prior knowledge and basis-function expansions will be used to add nonlinear modeling power while keeping data requirements practical. The thesis covers a wide range of applications, many inspired by applications within robotics, but also extending outside this already wide field. Usage of the proposed methods and algorithms are in many cases illustrated in the real-world applications that motivated the research. Topics covered include dynamics modeling and estimation, model-based reinforcement learning, spectral estimation, friction modeling and state estimation and calibration in robotic machining. In the work on modeling and identification of dynamics, we develop regularization strategies that allow us to incorporate prior domain knowledge into flexible, overparameterized models. We make use of classical control theory to gain insight into training and regularization while using flexible tools from modern deep learning. A particular focus of the work is to allow use of modern methods in scenarios where gathering data is associated with a high cost. In the robotics-inspired parts of the thesis, we develop methods that are practically motivated and ensure that they are implementable also outside the research setting. We demonstrate this by performing experiments in realistic settings and providing open-source implementations of all proposed methods and algorithms.


Artificial Intelligence : from Research to Application ; the Upper-Rhine Artificial Intelligence Symposium (UR-AI 2019)

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The TriRhenaTech alliance universities and their partners presented their competences in the field of artificial intelligence and their cross-border cooperations with the industry at the tri-national conference 'Artificial Intelligence : from Research to Application' on March 13th, 2019 in Offenburg. The TriRhenaTech alliance is a network of universities in the Upper Rhine Trinational Metropolitan Region comprising of the German universities of applied sciences in Furtwangen, Kaiserslautern, Karlsruhe, and Offenburg, the Baden-Wuerttemberg Cooperative State University Loerrach, the French university network Alsace Tech (comprised of 14 'grandes \'ecoles' in the fields of engineering, architecture and management) and the University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland. The alliance's common goal is to reinforce the transfer of knowledge, research, and technology, as well as the cross-border mobility of students.