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Artificial Intelligence Applications in Medicine: A Rapid Overview of Current Paradigms - European Medical Journal

#artificialintelligence

The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines artificial intelligence (AI) as "a branch of computer science dealing with the simulation of intelligent behavior in computers" or "the capability of a machine to imitate intelligent human behavior." The layman may think of AI as mere algorithms and programs; however, there is a distinct difference from the usual programs which are task-specific and written to perform repetitive tasks. Machine learning (ML) refers to a computing machine or system's ability to teach or improve itself using experience without explicit programming for each improvement, using methods of forward chaining of algorithms derived from backward chaining of algorithm deduction from data. Deep learning is a subsection within ML focussed on using artificial neural networks to address highly abstract problems;1 however, this is still a primitive form of AI. When fully developed, it will be capable of sentient and recursive or iterative self-improvement.


Logic Tensor Networks

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence agents are required to learn from their surroundings and to reason about the knowledge that has been learned in order to make decisions. While state-of-the-art learning from data typically uses sub-symbolic distributed representations, reasoning is normally useful at a higher level of abstraction with the use of a first-order logic language for knowledge representation. As a result, attempts at combining symbolic AI and neural computation into neural-symbolic systems have been on the increase. In this paper, we present Logic Tensor Networks (LTN), a neurosymbolic formalism and computational model that supports learning and reasoning through the introduction of a many-valued, end-to-end differentiable first-order logic called Real Logic as a representation language for deep learning. We show that LTN provides a uniform language for the specification and the computation of several AI tasks such as data clustering, multi-label classification, relational learning, query answering, semi-supervised learning, regression and embedding learning. We implement and illustrate each of the above tasks with a number of simple explanatory examples using TensorFlow 2. Keywords: Neurosymbolic AI, Deep Learning and Reasoning, Many-valued Logic.


"Brilliant AI Doctor" in Rural China: Tensions and Challenges in AI-Powered CDSS Deployment

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) technology has been increasingly used in the implementation of advanced Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS). Research demonstrated the potential usefulness of AI-powered CDSS (AI-CDSS) in clinical decision making scenarios. However, post-adoption user perception and experience remain understudied, especially in developing countries. Through observations and interviews with 22 clinicians from 6 rural clinics in China, this paper reports the various tensions between the design of an AI-CDSS system ("Brilliant Doctor") and the rural clinical context, such as the misalignment with local context and workflow, the technical limitations and usability barriers, as well as issues related to transparency and trustworthiness of AI-CDSS. Despite these tensions, all participants expressed positive attitudes toward the future of AI-CDSS, especially acting as "a doctor's AI assistant" to realize a Human-AI Collaboration future in clinical settings. Finally we draw on our findings to discuss implications for designing AI-CDSS interventions for rural clinical contexts in developing countries.


Machine Learning Towards Intelligent Systems: Applications, Challenges, and Opportunities

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The emergence and continued reliance on the Internet and related technologies has resulted in the generation of large amounts of data that can be made available for analyses. However, humans do not possess the cognitive capabilities to understand such large amounts of data. Machine learning (ML) provides a mechanism for humans to process large amounts of data, gain insights about the behavior of the data, and make more informed decision based on the resulting analysis. ML has applications in various fields. This review focuses on some of the fields and applications such as education, healthcare, network security, banking and finance, and social media. Within these fields, there are multiple unique challenges that exist. However, ML can provide solutions to these challenges, as well as create further research opportunities. Accordingly, this work surveys some of the challenges facing the aforementioned fields and presents some of the previous literature works that tackled them. Moreover, it suggests several research opportunities that benefit from the use of ML to address these challenges.


Developing Future Human-Centered Smart Cities: Critical Analysis of Smart City Security, Interpretability, and Ethical Challenges

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

As we make tremendous advances in machine learning and artificial intelligence technosciences, there is a renewed understanding in the AI community that we must ensure that humans being are at the center of our deliberations so that we don't end in technology-induced dystopias. As strongly argued by Green in his book Smart Enough City, the incorporation of technology in city environs does not automatically translate into prosperity, wellbeing, urban livability, or social justice. There is a great need to deliberate on the future of the cities worth living and designing. There are philosophical and ethical questions involved along with various challenges that relate to the security, safety, and interpretability of AI algorithms that will form the technological bedrock of future cities. Several research institutes on human centered AI have been established at top international universities. Globally there are calls for technology to be made more humane and human-compatible. For example, Stuart Russell has a book called Human Compatible AI. The Center for Humane Technology advocates for regulators and technology companies to avoid business models and product features that contribute to social problems such as extremism, polarization, misinformation, and Internet addiction. In this paper, we analyze and explore key challenges including security, robustness, interpretability, and ethical challenges to a successful deployment of AI or ML in human-centric applications, with a particular emphasis on the convergence of these challenges. We provide a detailed review of existing literature on these key challenges and analyze how one of these challenges may lead to others or help in solving other challenges. The paper also advises on the current limitations, pitfalls, and future directions of research in these domains, and how it can fill the current gaps and lead to better solutions.


Explaining by Removing: A Unified Framework for Model Explanation

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Researchers have proposed a wide variety of model explanation approaches, but it remains unclear how most methods are related or when one method is preferable to another. We establish a new class of methods, removal-based explanations, that are based on the principle of simulating feature removal to quantify each feature's influence. These methods vary in several respects, so we develop a framework that characterizes each method along three dimensions: 1) how the method removes features, 2) what model behavior the method explains, and 3) how the method summarizes each feature's influence. Our framework unifies 25 existing methods, including several of the most widely used approaches (SHAP, LIME, Meaningful Perturbations, permutation tests). This new class of explanation methods has rich connections that we examine using tools that have been largely overlooked by the explainability literature. To anchor removal-based explanations in cognitive psychology, we show that feature removal is a simple application of subtractive counterfactual reasoning. Ideas from cooperative game theory shed light on the relationships and trade-offs among different methods, and we derive conditions under which all removal-based explanations have information-theoretic interpretations. Through this analysis, we develop a unified framework that helps practitioners better understand model explanation tools, and that offers a strong theoretical foundation upon which future explainability research can build.


Gradient Flows in Dataset Space

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The current practice in machine learning is traditionally model-centric, casting problems as optimization over model parameters, all the while assuming the data is either fixed, or subject to extrinsic and inevitable change. On one hand, this paradigm fails to capture important existing aspects of machine learning, such as the substantial data manipulation (\emph{e.g.}, augmentation) that goes into most state-of-the-art pipelines. On the other hand, this viewpoint is ill-suited to formalize novel data-centric problems, such as model-agnostic transfer learning or dataset synthesis. In this work, we view these and other problems through the lens of \textit{dataset optimization}, casting them as optimization over data-generating distributions. We approach this class of problems through Wasserstein gradient flows in probability space, and derive practical and efficient particle-based methods for a flexible but well-behaved class of objective functions. Through various experiments on synthetic and real datasets, we show that this framework provides a principled and effective approach to dataset shaping, transfer, and interpolation.


Incorporating Symbolic Domain Knowledge into Graph Neural Networks

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Our interest is in scientific problems with the following characteristics: (1) Data are naturally represented as graphs; (2) The amount of data available is typically small; and (3) There is significant domain-knowledge, usually expressed in some symbolic form. These kinds of problems have been addressed effectively in the past by Inductive Logic Programming (ILP), by virtue of 2 important characteristics: (a) The use of a representation language that easily captures the relation encoded in graph-structured data, and (b) The inclusion of prior information encoded as domain-specific relations, that can alleviate problems of data scarcity, and construct new relations. Recent advances have seen the emergence of deep neural networks specifically developed for graph-structured data (Graph-based Neural Networks, or GNNs). While GNNs have been shown to be able to handle graph-structured data, less has been done to investigate the inclusion of domain-knowledge. Here we investigate this aspect of GNNs empirically by employing an operation we term "vertex-enrichment" and denote the corresponding GNNs as "VEGNNs". Using over 70 real-world datasets and substantial amounts of symbolic domain-knowledge, we examine the result of vertex-enrichment across 5 different variants of GNNs. Our results provide support for the following: (a) Inclusion of domain-knowledge by vertex-enrichment can significantly improve the performance of a GNN. That is, the performance VEGNNs is significantly better than GNNs across all GNN variants; (b) The inclusion of domain-specific relations constructed using ILP improves the performance of VEGNNs, across all GNN variants. Taken together, the results provide evidence that it is possible to incorporate symbolic domain knowledge into a GNN, and that ILP can play an important role in providing high-level relationships that are not easily discovered by a GNN.


Advances in Black-Box VI: Normalizing Flows, Importance Weighting, and Optimization

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Recent research has seen several advances relevant to black-box VI, but the current state of automatic posterior inference is unclear. One such advance is the use of normalizing flows to define flexible posterior densities for deep latent variable models. Another direction is the integration of Monte-Carlo methods to serve two purposes; first, to obtain tighter variational objectives for optimization, and second, to define enriched variational families through sampling. However, both flows and variational Monte-Carlo methods remain relatively unexplored for black-box VI. Moreover, on a pragmatic front, there are several optimization considerations like step-size scheme, parameter initialization, and choice of gradient estimators, for which there are no clear guidance in the existing literature. In this paper, we postulate that black-box VI is best addressed through a careful combination of numerous algorithmic components. We evaluate components relating to optimization, flows, and Monte-Carlo methods on a benchmark of 30 models from the Stan model library. The combination of these algorithmic components significantly advances the state-of-the-art "out of the box" variational inference.


Artificial Intelligence: Research Impact on Key Industries; the Upper-Rhine Artificial Intelligence Symposium (UR-AI 2020)

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The TriRhenaTech alliance presents a collection of accepted papers of the cancelled tri-national 'Upper-Rhine Artificial Inteeligence Symposium' planned for 13th May 2020 in Karlsruhe. The TriRhenaTech alliance is a network of universities in the Upper-Rhine Trinational Metropolitan Region comprising of the German universities of applied sciences in Furtwangen, Kaiserslautern, Karlsruhe, and Offenburg, the Baden-Wuerttemberg Cooperative State University Loerrach, the French university network Alsace Tech (comprised of 14 'grandes \'ecoles' in the fields of engineering, architecture and management) and the University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland. The alliance's common goal is to reinforce the transfer of knowledge, research, and technology, as well as the cross-border mobility of students.