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A Coupled CP Decomposition for Principal Components Analysis of Symmetric Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In a number of application domains, one observes a sequence of network data; for example, repeated measurements between users interactions in social media platforms, financial correlation networks over time, or across subjects, as in multi-subject studies of brain connectivity. One way to analyze such data is by stacking networks into a third-order array or tensor. We propose a principal components analysis (PCA) framework for sequence network data, based on a novel decomposition for semi-symmetric tensors. We derive efficient algorithms for computing our proposed "Coupled CP" decomposition and establish estimation consistency of our approach under an analogue of the spiked covariance model with rates the same as the matrix case up to a logarithmic term. Our framework inherits many of the strengths of classical PCA and is suitable for a wide range of unsupervised learning tasks, including identifying principal networks, isolating meaningful changepoints or outliers across observations, and for characterizing the "variability network" of the most varying edges. Finally, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposal on simulated data and on examples from political science and financial economics. The proof techniques used to establish our main consistency results are surprisingly straight-forward and may find use in a variety of other matrix and tensor decomposition problems.


Technology Ethics in Action: Critical and Interdisciplinary Perspectives

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This special issue interrogates the meaning and impacts of "tech ethics": the embedding of ethics into digital technology research, development, use, and governance. In response to concerns about the social harms associated with digital technologies, many individuals and institutions have articulated the need for a greater emphasis on ethics in digital technology. Yet as more groups embrace the concept of ethics, critical discourses have emerged questioning whose ethics are being centered, whether "ethics" is the appropriate frame for improving technology, and what it means to develop "ethical" technology in practice. This interdisciplinary issue takes up these questions, interrogating the relationships among ethics, technology, and society in action. This special issue engages with the normative and contested notions of ethics itself, how ethics has been integrated with technology across domains, and potential paths forward to support more just and egalitarian technology. Rather than starting from philosophical theories, the authors in this issue orient their articles around the real-world discourses and impacts of tech ethics--i.e., tech ethics in action.


Athens Roundtable on Artificial Intelligence and Rule of Law

#artificialintelligence

The Council of Europe is taking part in the third edition (online) of the "Athens Roundtable on Artificial Intelligence and the Rule of Law" on 6 and 7 December. Organised by the Future Society and ELONTech under the Patronage of the President of the Hellenic Republic, Katerina Sakellaropoulou, the event is co-hosted by UNESCO, the Council of Europe, the European Parliament's Panel on the Future of Science and Technology (STOA), IEEE SA, the Center on Civil Justice at the NYU School of Law and the National Judicial College, among other institutions. The roundtable is designed to facilitate a participatory dialogue among key stakeholders on international AI policy developments and key AI standardisation and benchmarking initiatives in the US, Europe and beyond. It will also address important issues at the intersection of AI, industry, government and law, including civil liability regimes, regulatory compliance, privacy and consumer protection, and judicial capacity building. Council of Europe Secretary General Marija Pejčinović Burić is speaking at the opening.


On the Opportunities and Risks of Foundation Models

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

AI is undergoing a paradigm shift with the rise of models (e.g., BERT, DALL-E, GPT-3) that are trained on broad data at scale and are adaptable to a wide range of downstream tasks. We call these models foundation models to underscore their critically central yet incomplete character. This report provides a thorough account of the opportunities and risks of foundation models, ranging from their capabilities (e.g., language, vision, robotics, reasoning, human interaction) and technical principles(e.g., model architectures, training procedures, data, systems, security, evaluation, theory) to their applications (e.g., law, healthcare, education) and societal impact (e.g., inequity, misuse, economic and environmental impact, legal and ethical considerations). Though foundation models are based on standard deep learning and transfer learning, their scale results in new emergent capabilities,and their effectiveness across so many tasks incentivizes homogenization. Homogenization provides powerful leverage but demands caution, as the defects of the foundation model are inherited by all the adapted models downstream. Despite the impending widespread deployment of foundation models, we currently lack a clear understanding of how they work, when they fail, and what they are even capable of due to their emergent properties. To tackle these questions, we believe much of the critical research on foundation models will require deep interdisciplinary collaboration commensurate with their fundamentally sociotechnical nature.


The Role of Social Movements, Coalitions, and Workers in Resisting Harmful Artificial Intelligence and Contributing to the Development of Responsible AI

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

There is mounting public concern over the influence that AI based systems has in our society. Coalitions in all sectors are acting worldwide to resist hamful applications of AI. From indigenous people addressing the lack of reliable data, to smart city stakeholders, to students protesting the academic relationships with sex trafficker and MIT donor Jeffery Epstein, the questionable ethics and values of those heavily investing in and profiting from AI are under global scrutiny. There are biased, wrongful, and disturbing assumptions embedded in AI algorithms that could get locked in without intervention. Our best human judgment is needed to contain AI's harmful impact. Perhaps one of the greatest contributions of AI will be to make us ultimately understand how important human wisdom truly is in life on earth.


Imposing Regulation on Advanced Algorithms

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This book discusses the necessity and perhaps urgency for the regulation of algorithms on which new technologies rely; technologies that have the potential to re-shape human societies. From commerce and farming to medical care and education, it is difficult to find any aspect of our lives that will not be affected by these emerging technologies. At the same time, artificial intelligence, deep learning, machine learning, cognitive computing, blockchain, virtual reality and augmented reality, belong to the fields most likely to affect law and, in particular, administrative law. The book examines universally applicable patterns in administrative decisions and judicial rulings. First, similarities and divergence in behavior among the different cases are identified by analyzing parameters ranging from geographical location and administrative decisions to judicial reasoning and legal basis. As it turns out, in several of the cases presented, sources of general law, such as competition or labor law, are invoked as a legal basis, due to the lack of current specialized legislation. This book also investigates the role and significance of national and indeed supranational regulatory bodies for advanced algorithms and considers ENISA, an EU agency that focuses on network and information security, as an interesting candidate for a European regulator of advanced algorithms. Lastly, it discusses the involvement of representative institutions in algorithmic regulation.



Smartphones, Contents of the Mind, and the Fifth Amendment

Communications of the ACM

Originally published in French as Phénoménologie de la Perception (1962/1945).