Recent advancements in quantum computing have driven the scientific community's quest to solve a certain class of complex problems for which quantum computers would be better suited than traditional supercomputers. To improve the efficiency with which quantum computers can solve these problems, scientists are investigating the use of artificial intelligence approaches. In a new study, scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory have developed a new algorithm based on reinforcement learning to find the optimal parameters for the Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm (QAOA), which allows a quantum computer to solve certain combinatorial problems such as those that arise in materials design, chemistry and wireless communications. "Combinatorial optimization problems are those for which the solution space gets exponentially larger as you expand the number of decision variables," said Argonne computer scientist Prasanna Balaprakash. "In one traditional example, you can find the shortest route for a salesman who needs to visit a few cities once by enumerating all possible routes, but given a couple thousand cities, the number of possible routes far exceeds the number of stars in the universe; even the fastest supercomputers cannot find the shortest route in a reasonable time."
Problems affecting the transport of people or goods are plentiful in industry and commerce and they also appear to be at the origin of much more complex problems. In recent years, the logistics and transport sector keeps growing supported by technological progress, i.e. companies to be competitive are resorting to innovative technologies aimed at efficiency and effectiveness. This is why companies are increasingly using technologies such as Artificial Intelligence (AI), Blockchain and Internet of Things (IoT). Artificial intelligence, in particular, is often used to solve optimization problems in order to provide users with the most efficient ways to exploit available resources. In this work we present an overview of our current research activities concerning the development of new algorithms, based on CLP techniques, for route planning problems exploiting the geometric information intrinsically present in many of them or in some of their variants. The research so far has focused in particular on the Euclidean Traveling Salesperson Problem (Euclidean TSP) with the aim to exploit the results obtained also to other problems of the same category, such as the Euclidean Vehicle Routing Problem (Euclidean VRP), in the future.
Black-box Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods, e.g. deep neural networks, have been widely utilized to build predictive models that can extract complex relationships in a dataset and make predictions for new unseen data records. However, it is difficult to trust decisions made by such methods since their inner working and decision logic is hidden from the user. Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) refers to systems that try to explain how a black-box AI model produces its outcomes. Post-hoc XAI methods approximate the behavior of a black-box by extracting relationships between feature values and the predictions. Perturbation-based and decision set methods are among commonly used post-hoc XAI systems. The former explanators rely on random perturbations of data records to build local or global linear models that explain individual predictions or the whole model. The latter explanators use those feature values that appear more frequently to construct a set of decision rules that produces the same outcomes as the target black-box. However, these two classes of XAI methods have some limitations. Random perturbations do not take into account the distribution of feature values in different subspaces, leading to misleading approximations. Decision sets only pay attention to frequent feature values and miss many important correlations between features and class labels that appear less frequently but accurately represent decision boundaries of the model. In this paper, we address the above challenges by proposing an explanation method named Confident Itemsets Explanation (CIE). We introduce confident itemsets, a set of feature values that are highly correlated to a specific class label. CIE utilizes confident itemsets to discretize the whole decision space of a model to smaller subspaces.
Sepsis is one of the leading causes of death in Intensive Care Units (ICU). The strategy for treating sepsis involves the infusion of intravenous (IV) fluids and administration of antibiotics. Determining the optimal quantity of IV fluids is a challenging problem due to the complexity of a patient's physiology. In this study, we develop a data-driven optimization solution that derives the optimal quantity of IV fluids for individual patients. The proposed method minimizes the probability of severe outcomes by controlling the prescribed quantity of IV fluids and utilizes human-in-the-loop artificial intelligence. We demonstrate the performance of our model on 1122 ICU patients with sepsis diagnosis extracted from the MIMIC-III dataset. The results show that, on average, our model can reduce mortality by 22%. This study has the potential to help physicians synthesize optimal, patient-specific treatment strategies.
This thesis focuses on the research and development of the Hemodynamic Tissue Signature (HTS) method: an unsupervised machine learning approach to describe the vascular heterogeneity of glioblastomas by means of perfusion MRI analysis. The HTS builds on the concept of habitats. An habitat is defined as a sub-region of the lesion with a particular MRI profile describing a specific physiological behavior. The HTS method delineates four habitats within the glioblastoma: the High Angiogenic Tumor (HAT) habitat, as the most perfused region of the enhancing tumor; the Low Angiogenic Tumor (LAT) habitat, as the region of the enhancing tumor with a lower angiogenic profile; the potentially Infiltrated Peripheral Edema (IPE) habitat, as the non-enhancing region adjacent to the tumor with elevated perfusion indexes; and the Vasogenic Peripheral Edema (VPE) habitat, as the remaining edema of the lesion with the lowest perfusion profile. The results of this thesis have been published in ten scientific contributions, including top-ranked journals and conferences in the areas of Medical Informatics, Statistics and Probability, Radiology & Nuclear Medicine, Machine Learning and Data Mining and Biomedical Engineering. An industrial patent registered in Spain (ES201431289A), Europe (EP3190542A1) and EEUU (US20170287133A1) was also issued, summarizing the efforts of the thesis to generate tangible assets besides the academic revenue obtained from research publications. Finally, the methods, technologies and original ideas conceived in this thesis led to the foundation of ONCOANALYTICS CDX, a company framed into the business model of companion diagnostics for pharmaceutical compounds, thought as a vehicle to facilitate the industrialization of the ONCOhabitats technology.
The goal of fairness in classification is to learn a classifier that does not discriminate against groups of individuals based on sensitive attributes, such as race and gender. One approach to designing fair algorithms is to use relaxations of fairness notions as regularization terms or in a constrained optimization problem. We observe that the hyperbolic tangent function can approximate the indicator function. We leverage this property to define a differentiable relaxation that approximates fairness notions provably better than existing relaxations. In addition, we propose a model-agnostic multi-objective architecture that can simultaneously optimize for multiple fairness notions and multiple sensitive attributes and supports all statistical parity-based notions of fairness. We use our relaxation with the multi-objective architecture to learn fair classifiers. Experiments on public datasets show that our method suffers a significantly lower loss of accuracy than current debiasing algorithms relative to the unconstrained model.
Real-time ridesharing systems such as UberPool, Lyft Line, GrabShare have become hugely popular as they reduce the costs for customers, improve per trip revenue for drivers and reduce traffic on the roads by grouping customers with similar itineraries. The key challenge in these systems is to group the "right" requests to travel together in the "right" available vehicles in real-time, so that the objective (e.g., requests served, revenue or delay) is optimized. This challenge has been addressed in existing work by: (i) generating as many relevant feasible (with respect to the available delay for customers) combinations of requests as possible in real-time; and then (ii) optimizing assignment of the feasible request combinations to vehicles. Since the number of request combinations increases exponentially with the increase in vehicle capacity and number of requests, unfortunately, such approaches have to employ ad hoc heuristics to identify a subset of request combinations for assignment. Our key contribution is in developing approaches that employ zone (abstraction of individual locations) paths instead of request combinations. Zone paths allow for generation of significantly more "relevant" combinations (in comparison to ad hoc heuristics) in real-time than competing approaches due to two reasons: (i) Each zone path can typically represent multiple request combinations; (ii) Zone paths are generated using a combination of offline and online methods. Specifically, we contribute both myopic (ridesharing assignment focussed on current requests only) and non-myopic (ridesharing assignment considers impact on expected future requests) approaches that employ zone paths. In our experimental results, we demonstrate that our myopic approach outperforms (with respect to both objective and runtime) the current best myopic approach for ridesharing on both real-world and synthetic datasets.
CSG trees are an intuitive, yet powerful technique for the representation of geometry using a combination of Boolean set-operations and geometric primitives. In general, there exists an infinite number of trees all describing the same 3D solid. However, some trees are optimal regarding the number of used operations, their shape or other attributes, like their suitability for intuitive, human-controlled editing. In this paper, we present a systematic comparison of newly developed and existing tree optimization methods and propose a flexible processing pipeline with a focus on tree editability. The pipeline uses a redundancy removal and decomposition stage for complexity reduction and different (meta-)heuristics for remaining tree optimization. We also introduce a new quantitative measure for CSG tree editability and show how it can be used as a constraint in the optimization process.
Narratives are fundamental to our perception of the world and are pervasive in all activities that involve the representation of events in time. Yet, modern online information systems do not incorporate narratives in their representation of events occurring over time. This article aims to bridge this gap, combining the theory of narrative representations with the data from modern online systems. We make three key contributions: a theory-driven computational representation of narratives, a novel extraction algorithm to obtain these representations from data, and an evaluation of our approach. In particular, given the effectiveness of visual metaphors, we employ a route map metaphor to design a narrative map representation. The narrative map representation illustrates the events and stories in the narrative as a series of landmarks and routes on the map. Each element of our representation is backed by a corresponding element from formal narrative theory, thus providing a solid theoretical background to our method. Our approach extracts the underlying graph structure of the narrative map using a novel optimization technique focused on maximizing coherence while respecting structural and coverage constraints. We showcase the effectiveness of our approach by performing a user evaluation to assess the quality of the representation, metaphor, and visualization. Evaluation results indicate that the Narrative Map representation is a powerful method to communicate complex narratives to individuals. Our findings have implications for intelligence analysts, computational journalists, and misinformation researchers.