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Cleaning Inconsistent Data in Temporal DL-Lite Under Best Repair Semantics

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this paper, we address the problem of handling inconsistent data in Temporal Description Logic (TDL) knowledge bases. Considering the data part of the knowledge base as the source of inconsistency over time, we propose an ABox repair approach. This is the first work handling the repair in TDL Knowledge bases. To do so, our goal is twofold: 1) detect temporal inconsistencies and 2) propose a data temporal reparation. For the inconsistency detection, we propose a reduction approach from TDL to DL which allows to provide a tight NP-complete upper bound for TDL concept satisfiability and to use highly optimised DL reasoners that can bring precise explanation (the set of inconsistent data assertions). Thereafter, from the obtained explanation, we propose a method for automatically computing the best repair in the temporal setting based on the allowed rigid predicates and the time order of assertions.


Consequence-Based Reasoning for Description Logics with Disjunctions and Number Restrictions

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

Classification of description logic (DL) ontologies is a key computational problem in modern data management applications, so considerable effort has been devoted to the development and optimisation of practical reasoning calculi. Consequence-based calculi combine ideas from hypertableau and resolution in a way that has proved very effective in practice. However, existing consequence-based calculi can handle either Horn DLs (which do not support disjunction) or DLs without number restrictions. In this paper, we overcome this important limitation and present the first consequence-based calculus for deciding concept subsumption in the DL ALCHIQ+. Our calculus runs in exponential time assuming unary coding of numbers, and on ELH ontologies it runs in polynomial time. The extension to disjunctions and number restrictions is technically involved: we capture the relevant consequences using first-order clauses, and our inference rules adapt paramodulation techniques from first-order theorem proving. By using a well-known preprocessing step, the calculus can also decide concept subsumptions in SRIQ---a rich DL that covers all features of OWL 2 DL apart from nominals and datatypes. We have implemented our calculus in a new reasoner called Sequoia. We present the architecture of our reasoner and discuss several novel and important implementation techniques such as clause indexing and redundancy elimination. Finally, we present the results of an extensive performance evaluation, which revealed Sequoia to be competitive with existing reasoners. Thus, the calculus and the techniques we present in this paper provide an important addition to the repertoire of practical implementation techniques for description logic reasoning.


Probabilistic DL Reasoning with Pinpointing Formulas: A Prolog-based Approach

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

When modeling real world domains we have to deal with information that is incomplete or that comes from sources with different trust levels. This motivates the need for managing uncertainty in the Semantic Web. To this purpose, we introduced a probabilistic semantics, named DISPONTE, in order to combine description logics with probability theory. The probability of a query can be then computed from the set of its explanations by building a Binary Decision Diagram (BDD). The set of explanations can be found using the tableau algorithm, which has to handle non-determinism. Prolog, with its efficient handling of non-determinism, is suitable for implementing the tableau algorithm. TRILL and TRILLP are systems offering a Prolog implementation of the tableau algorithm. TRILLP builds a pinpointing formula, that compactly represents the set of explanations and can be directly translated into a BDD. Both reasoners were shown to outperform state-of-the-art DL reasoners. In this paper, we present an improvement of TRILLP, named TORNADO, in which the BDD is directly built during the construction of the tableau, further speeding up the overall inference process. An experimental comparison shows the effectiveness of TORNADO. All systems can be tried online in the TRILL on SWISH web application at http://trill.ml.unife.it/.


Finite Query Answering in Expressive Description Logics with Transitive Roles

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We study the problem of finite ontology mediated query answering (FOMQA), the variant of OMQA where the represented world is assumed to be finite, and thus only finite models of the ontology are considered. We adopt the most typical setting with unions of conjunctive queries and ontologies expressed in description logics (DLs). The study of FOMQA is relevant in settings that are not finitely controllable. This is the case not only for DLs without the finite model property, but also for those allowing transitive role declarations. When transitive roles are allowed, evaluating queries is challenging: FOMQA is undecidable for SHOIF and only known to be decidable for the Horn fragment of ALCIF. We show decidability of FOMQA for three proper fragments of SOIF: SOI, SOF, and SIF. Our approach is to characterise models relevant for deciding finite query entailment. Relying on a certain regularity of these models, we develop automata-based decision procedures with optimal complexity bounds.


Ontologies Come of Age

AITopics Original Links

This is an updated version of Usability Issues in Description Logic Systems'' published in Proceedings of International Workshop on Description Logics, Gif sur Yvette, (Paris), France, September, 1997.


The Complexity of Answering Conjunctive and Navigational Queries over OWL 2 EL Knowledge Bases

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

OWL 2 EL is a popular ontology language that supports role inclusions---that is, axioms that capture compositional properties of roles. Role inclusions closely correspond to context-free grammars, which was used to show that answering conjunctive queries (CQs) over OWL 2 EL knowledge bases with unrestricted role inclusions is undecidable. However, OWL 2 EL inherits from OWL 2 DL the syntactic regularity restriction on role inclusions, which ensures that role chains implying a particular role can be described using a finite automaton (FA). This is sufficient to ensure decidability of CQ answering; however, the FAs can be worst-case exponential in size so the known approaches do not provide a tight upper complexity bound. In this paper, we solve this open problem and show that answering CQs over OWL 2 EL knowledge bases is PSPACE-complete in combined complexity (i.e., the complexity measured in the total size of the input). To this end, we use a novel encoding of regular role inclusions using bounded-stack pushdown automata---that is, FAs extended with a stack of bounded size. Apart from theoretical interest, our encoding can be used in practical tableau algorithms to avoid the exponential blowup due to role inclusions. In addition, we sharpen the lower complexity bound and show that the problem is PSPACE-hard even if we consider only role inclusions as part of the input (i.e., the query and all other parts of the knowledge base are fixed). Finally, we turn our attention to navigational queries over OWL 2 EL knowledge bases, and we show that answering positive, converse-free conjunctive graph XPath queries is PSPACE-complete as well; this is interesting since allowing the converse operator in queries is known to make the problem EXPTIME-hard. Thus, in this paper we present several important contributions to the landscape of the complexity of answering expressive queries over description logic knowledge bases.


Hypertableau Reasoning for Description Logics

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We present a novel reasoning calculus for the description logic SHOIQ^+---a knowledge representation formalism with applications in areas such as the Semantic Web. Unnecessary nondeterminism and the construction of large models are two primary sources of inefficiency in the tableau-based reasoning calculi used in state-of-the-art reasoners. In order to reduce nondeterminism, we base our calculus on hypertableau and hyperresolution calculi, which we extend with a blocking condition to ensure termination. In order to reduce the size of the constructed models, we introduce anywhere pairwise blocking. We also present an improved nominal introduction rule that ensures termination in the presence of nominals, inverse roles, and number restrictions---a combination of DL constructs that has proven notoriously difficult to handle. Our implementation shows significant performance improvements over state-of-the-art reasoners on several well-known ontologies.


Description Logics based Formalization of Wh-Queries

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The problem of Natural Language Query Formalization (NLQF) is to translate a given user query in natural language (NL) into a formal language so that the semantic interpretation has equivalence with the NL interpretation. Formalization of NL queries enables logic based reasoning during information retrieval, database query, question-answering, etc. Formalization also helps in Web query normalization and indexing, query intent analysis, etc. In this paper we are proposing a Description Logics based formal methodology for wh-query intent (also called desire) identification and corresponding formal translation. We evaluated the scalability of our proposed formalism using Microsoft Encarta 98 query dataset and OWL-S TC v.4.0 dataset.


Complexity Analysis and Variational Inference for Interpretation-based Probabilistic Description Logic

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper presents complexity analysis and variational methods for inference in probabilistic description logics featuring Boolean operators, quantification, qualified number restrictions, nominals, inverse roles and role hierarchies. Inference is shown to be PEXP-complete, and variational methods are designed so as to exploit logical inference whenever possible.


Reasoning with Very Expressive Fuzzy Description Logics

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

It is widely recognized today that the management of imprecision and vagueness will yield more intelligent and realistic knowledge-based applications. Description Logics (DLs) are a family of knowledge representation languages that have gained considerable attention the last decade, mainly due to their decidability and the existence of empirically high performance of reasoning algorithms. In this paper, we extend the well known fuzzy ALC DL to the fuzzy SHIN DL, which extends the fuzzy ALC DL with transitive role axioms (S), inverse roles (I), role hierarchies (H) and number restrictions (N). We illustrate why transitive role axioms are difficult to handle in the presence of fuzzy interpretations and how to handle them properly. Then we extend these results by adding role hierarchies and finally number restrictions. The main contributions of the paper are the decidability proof of the fuzzy DL languages fuzzy-SI and fuzzy-SHIN, as well as decision procedures for the knowledge base satisfiability problem of the fuzzy-SI and fuzzy-SHIN.