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Addressing the Fundamental Tension of PCGML with Discriminative Learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Procedural content generation via machine learning (PCGML) is typically framed as the task of fitting a generative model to full-scale examples of a desired content distribution. This approach presents a fundamental tension: the more design effort expended to produce detailed training examples for shaping a generator, the lower the return on investment from applying PCGML in the first place. In response, we propose the use of discriminative models (which capture the validity of a design rather the distribution of the content) trained on positive and negative examples. Through a modest modification of WaveFunctionCollapse, a commercially-adopted PCG approach that we characterize as using elementary machine learning, we demonstrate a new mode of control for learning-based generators. We demonstrate how an artist might craft a focused set of additional positive and negative examples by critique of the generator's previous outputs. This interaction mode bridges PCGML with mixed-initiative design assistance tools by working with a machine to define a space of valid designs rather than just one new design.


ClassiNet -- Predicting Missing Features for Short-Text Classification

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The fundamental problem in short-text classification is \emph{feature sparseness} -- the lack of feature overlap between a trained model and a test instance to be classified. We propose \emph{ClassiNet} -- a network of classifiers trained for predicting missing features in a given instance, to overcome the feature sparseness problem. Using a set of unlabeled training instances, we first learn binary classifiers as feature predictors for predicting whether a particular feature occurs in a given instance. Next, each feature predictor is represented as a vertex $v_i$ in the ClassiNet where a one-to-one correspondence exists between feature predictors and vertices. The weight of the directed edge $e_{ij}$ connecting a vertex $v_i$ to a vertex $v_j$ represents the conditional probability that given $v_i$ exists in an instance, $v_j$ also exists in the same instance. We show that ClassiNets generalize word co-occurrence graphs by considering implicit co-occurrences between features. We extract numerous features from the trained ClassiNet to overcome feature sparseness. In particular, for a given instance $\vec{x}$, we find similar features from ClassiNet that did not appear in $\vec{x}$, and append those features in the representation of $\vec{x}$. Moreover, we propose a method based on graph propagation to find features that are indirectly related to a given short-text. We evaluate ClassiNets on several benchmark datasets for short-text classification. Our experimental results show that by using ClassiNet, we can statistically significantly improve the accuracy in short-text classification tasks, without having to use any external resources such as thesauri for finding related features.


Belief Propagation in Conditional RBMs for Structured Prediction

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Restricted Boltzmann machines~(RBMs) and conditional RBMs~(CRBMs) are popular models for a wide range of applications. In previous work, learning on such models has been dominated by contrastive divergence~(CD) and its variants. Belief propagation~(BP) algorithms are believed to be slow for structured prediction on conditional RBMs~(e.g., Mnih et al. [2011]), and not as good as CD when applied in learning~(e.g., Larochelle et al. [2012]). In this work, we present a matrix-based implementation of belief propagation algorithms on CRBMs, which is easily scalable to tens of thousands of visible and hidden units. We demonstrate that, in both maximum likelihood and max-margin learning, training conditional RBMs with BP as the inference routine can provide significantly better results than current state-of-the-art CD methods on structured prediction problems. We also include practical guidelines on training CRBMs with BP, and some insights on the interaction of learning and inference algorithms for CRBMs.


Structured Prediction Energy Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We introduce structured prediction energy networks (SPENs), a flexible framework for structured prediction. A deep architecture is used to define an energy function of candidate labels, and then predictions are produced by using back-propagation to iteratively optimize the energy with respect to the labels. This deep architecture captures dependencies between labels that would lead to intractable graphical models, and performs structure learning by automatically learning discriminative features of the structured output. One natural application of our technique is multi-label classification, which traditionally has required strict prior assumptions about the interactions between labels to ensure tractable learning and prediction. We are able to apply SPENs to multi-label problems with substantially larger label sets than previous applications of structured prediction, while modeling high-order interactions using minimal structural assumptions. Overall, deep learning provides remarkable tools for learning features of the inputs to a prediction problem, and this work extends these techniques to learning features of structured outputs. Our experiments provide impressive performance on a variety of benchmark multi-label classification tasks, demonstrate that our technique can be used to provide interpretable structure learning, and illuminate fundamental trade-offs between feed-forward and iterative structured prediction.