Artificial Intelligence (AI) has changed our lives. Improvements in data mining, personal and automotive navigation, cybersecurity, personal entertainment and healthcare are several examples of the impact of AI. Recognizing that technological process can be measured by a review of the patent literature, the USPTO recently examined the patent literature from 1976 through 2018 to gauge the potential impact of AI on technology and innovation. It found a significant increase in patents using or covering AI. Patents containing AI appeared in about 42% of all technology subclasses in 2018 as compared to only 9% in 1976. The study also reported that the percentage of inventor-patentees active in AI started at 1% in 1976 and increased to 25% by 2018. Similar growth was reported for organizations patenting in AI. Precision medicine recognizes that patient subpopulations can be identified who differ in their disease risk, prognosis and response to treatment due to differences in underlying biology and other characteristics.
This book discusses the necessity and perhaps urgency for the regulation of algorithms on which new technologies rely; technologies that have the potential to re-shape human societies. From commerce and farming to medical care and education, it is difficult to find any aspect of our lives that will not be affected by these emerging technologies. At the same time, artificial intelligence, deep learning, machine learning, cognitive computing, blockchain, virtual reality and augmented reality, belong to the fields most likely to affect law and, in particular, administrative law. The book examines universally applicable patterns in administrative decisions and judicial rulings. First, similarities and divergence in behavior among the different cases are identified by analyzing parameters ranging from geographical location and administrative decisions to judicial reasoning and legal basis. As it turns out, in several of the cases presented, sources of general law, such as competition or labor law, are invoked as a legal basis, due to the lack of current specialized legislation. This book also investigates the role and significance of national and indeed supranational regulatory bodies for advanced algorithms and considers ENISA, an EU agency that focuses on network and information security, as an interesting candidate for a European regulator of advanced algorithms. Lastly, it discusses the involvement of representative institutions in algorithmic regulation.