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Towards Personalized and Human-in-the-Loop Document Summarization

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The ubiquitous availability of computing devices and the widespread use of the internet have generated a large amount of data continuously. Therefore, the amount of available information on any given topic is far beyond humans' processing capacity to properly process, causing what is known as information overload. To efficiently cope with large amounts of information and generate content with significant value to users, we require identifying, merging and summarising information. Data summaries can help gather related information and collect it into a shorter format that enables answering complicated questions, gaining new insight and discovering conceptual boundaries. This thesis focuses on three main challenges to alleviate information overload using novel summarisation techniques. It further intends to facilitate the analysis of documents to support personalised information extraction. This thesis separates the research issues into four areas, covering (i) feature engineering in document summarisation, (ii) traditional static and inflexible summaries, (iii) traditional generic summarisation approaches, and (iv) the need for reference summaries. We propose novel approaches to tackle these challenges, by: i)enabling automatic intelligent feature engineering, ii) enabling flexible and interactive summarisation, iii) utilising intelligent and personalised summarisation approaches. The experimental results prove the efficiency of the proposed approaches compared to other state-of-the-art models. We further propose solutions to the information overload problem in different domains through summarisation, covering network traffic data, health data and business process data.


Machine Learning Towards Intelligent Systems: Applications, Challenges, and Opportunities

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The emergence and continued reliance on the Internet and related technologies has resulted in the generation of large amounts of data that can be made available for analyses. However, humans do not possess the cognitive capabilities to understand such large amounts of data. Machine learning (ML) provides a mechanism for humans to process large amounts of data, gain insights about the behavior of the data, and make more informed decision based on the resulting analysis. ML has applications in various fields. This review focuses on some of the fields and applications such as education, healthcare, network security, banking and finance, and social media. Within these fields, there are multiple unique challenges that exist. However, ML can provide solutions to these challenges, as well as create further research opportunities. Accordingly, this work surveys some of the challenges facing the aforementioned fields and presents some of the previous literature works that tackled them. Moreover, it suggests several research opportunities that benefit from the use of ML to address these challenges.


An Improved Approach for Estimating Social POI Boundaries With Textual Attributes on Social Media

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

It has been insufficiently explored how to perform density-based clustering by exploiting textual attributes on social media. In this paper, we aim at discovering a social point-of-interest (POI) boundary, formed as a convex polygon. More specifically, we present a new approach and algorithm, built upon our earlier work on social POI boundary estimation (SoBEst). This SoBEst approach takes into account both relevant and irrelevant records within a geographic area, where relevant records contain a POI name or its variations in their text field. Our study is motivated by the following empirical observation: a fixed representative coordinate of each POI that SoBEst basically assumes may be far away from the centroid of the estimated social POI boundary for certain POIs. Thus, using SoBEst in such cases may possibly result in unsatisfactory performance on the boundary estimation quality (BEQ), which is expressed as a function of the $F$-measure. To solve this problem, we formulate a joint optimization problem of simultaneously finding the radius of a circle and the POI's representative coordinate $c$ by allowing to update $c$. Subsequently, we design an iterative SoBEst (I-SoBEst) algorithm, which enables us to achieve a higher degree of BEQ for some POIs. The computational complexity of the proposed I-SoBEst algorithm is shown to scale linearly with the number of records. We demonstrate the superiority of our algorithm over competing clustering methods including the original SoBEst.


From Twitter to Traffic Predictor: Next-Day Morning Traffic Prediction Using Social Media Data

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The effectiveness of traditional traffic prediction methods is often extremely limited when forecasting traffic dynamics in early morning. The reason is that traffic can break down drastically during the early morning commute, and the time and duration of this break-down vary substantially from day to day. Early morning traffic forecast is crucial to inform morning-commute traffic management, but they are generally challenging to predict in advance, particularly by midnight. In this paper, we propose to mine Twitter messages as a probing method to understand the impacts of people's work and rest patterns in the evening/midnight of the previous day to the next-day morning traffic. The model is tested on freeway networks in Pittsburgh as experiments. The resulting relationship is surprisingly simple and powerful. We find that, in general, the earlier people rest as indicated from Tweets, the more congested roads will be in the next morning. The occurrence of big events in the evening before, represented by higher or lower tweet sentiment than normal, often implies lower travel demand in the next morning than normal days. Besides, people's tweeting activities in the night before and early morning are statistically associated with congestion in morning peak hours. We make use of such relationships to build a predictive framework which forecasts morning commute congestion using people's tweeting profiles extracted by 5 am or as late as the midnight prior to the morning. The Pittsburgh study supports that our framework can precisely predict morning congestion, particularly for some road segments upstream of roadway bottlenecks with large day-to-day congestion variation. Our approach considerably outperforms those existing methods without Twitter message features, and it can learn meaningful representation of demand from tweeting profiles that offer managerial insights.


Community detection and Social Network analysis based on the Italian wars of the 15th century

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this contribution we study social network modelling by using human interaction as a basis. To do so, we propose a new set of functions, affinities, designed to capture the nature of the local interactions among each pair of actors in a network. By using these functions, we develop a new community detection algorithm, the Borgia Clustering, where communities naturally arise from the multi-agent interaction in the network. We also discuss the effects of size and scale for communities regarding this case, as well as how we cope with the additional complexity present when big communities arise. Finally, we compare our community detection solution with other representative algorithms, finding favourable results.


The impossibility of low rank representations for triangle-rich complex networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The study of complex networks is a significant development in modern science, and has enriched the social sciences, biology, physics, and computer science. Models and algorithms for such networks are pervasive in our society, and impact human behavior via social networks, search engines, and recommender systems to name a few. A widely used algorithmic technique for modeling such complex networks is to construct a low-dimensional Euclidean embedding of the vertices of the network, where proximity of vertices is interpreted as the likelihood of an edge. Contrary to the common view, we argue that such graph embeddings do not}capture salient properties of complex networks. The two properties we focus on are low degree and large clustering coefficients, which have been widely established to be empirically true for real-world networks. We mathematically prove that any embedding (that uses dot products to measure similarity) that can successfully create these two properties must have rank nearly linear in the number of vertices. Among other implications, this establishes that popular embedding techniques such as Singular Value Decomposition and node2vec fail to capture significant structural aspects of real-world complex networks. Furthermore, we empirically study a number of different embedding techniques based on dot product, and show that they all fail to capture the triangle structure.


Targeted sampling from massive Blockmodel graphs with personalized PageRank

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This paper provides statistical theory and intuition for Personalized PageRank (PPR), a popular technique that samples a small community from a massive network. We study a setting where the entire network is expensive to thoroughly obtain or maintain, but we can start from a seed node of interest and "crawl" the network to find other nodes through their connections. By crawling the graph in a designed way, the PPR vector can be approximated without querying the entire massive graph, making it an alternative to snowball sampling. Using the Degree-Corrected Stochastic Blockmodel, we study whether the PPR vector can select nodes that belong to the same block as the seed node. We provide a simple and interpretable form for the PPR vector, highlighting its biases towards high degree nodes outside of the target block. We examine a simple adjustment based on node degrees and establish consistency results for PPR clustering that allows for directed graphs. We illustrate the method with the Twitter friendship graph and find that (i) the adjusted and unadjusted PPR techniques are complementary approaches, where the adjustment makes the results particularly localized around the seed node and (ii) the bias adjustment greatly benefits from degree regularization.


Anomaly Detection with Joint Representation Learning of Content and Connection

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Social media sites are becoming a key factor in politics. These platforms are easy to manipulate for the purpose of distorting information space to confuse and distract voters. Past works to identify disruptive patterns are mostly focused on analyzing the content of tweets. In this study, we jointly embed the information from both user posted content as well as a user's follower network, to detect groups of densely connected users in an unsupervised fashion. We then investigate these dense sub-blocks of users to flag anomalous behavior. In our experiments, we study the tweets related to the upcoming 2019 Canadian Elections, and observe a set of densely-connected users engaging in local politics in different provinces, and exhibiting troll-like behavior.


Visual Analytics of Anomalous User Behaviors: A Survey

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The increasing accessibility of data provides substantial opportunities for understanding user behaviors. Unearthing anomalies in user behaviors is of particular importance as it helps signal harmful incidents such as network intrusions, terrorist activities, and financial frauds. Many visual analytics methods have been proposed to help understand user behavior-related data in various application domains. In this work, we survey the state of art in visual analytics of anomalous user behaviors and classify them into four categories including social interaction, travel, network communication, and transaction. We further examine the research works in each category in terms of data types, anomaly detection techniques, and visualization techniques, and interaction methods. Finally, we discuss the findings and potential research directions.


Improved Density-Based Spatio--Textual Clustering on Social Media

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

DBSCAN may not be sufficient when the input data type is heterogeneous in terms of textual description. When we aim to discover clusters of geo-tagged records relevant to a particular point-of-interest (POI) on social media, examining only one type of input data (e.g., the tweets relevant to a POI) may draw an incomplete picture of clusters due to noisy regions. To overcome this problem, we introduce DBSTexC, a newly defined density-based clustering algorithm using spatio--textual information. We first characterize POI-relevant and POI-irrelevant tweets as the texts that include and do not include a POI name or its semantically coherent variations, respectively. By leveraging the proportion of POI-relevant and POI-irrelevant tweets, the proposed algorithm demonstrates much higher clustering performance than the DBSCAN case in terms of $\mathcal{F}_1$ score and its variants. While DBSTexC performs exactly as DBSCAN with the textually homogeneous inputs, it far outperforms DBSCAN with the textually heterogeneous inputs. Furthermore, to further improve the clustering quality by fully capturing the geographic distribution of tweets, we present fuzzy DBSTexC (F-DBSTexC), an extension of DBSTexC, which incorporates the notion of fuzzy clustering into the DBSTexC. We then demonstrate the robustness of F-DBSTexC via intensive experiments. The computational complexity of our algorithms is also analytically and numerically shown.