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Selection in the Presence of Implicit Bias: The Advantage of Intersectional Constraints

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In selection processes such as hiring, promotion, and college admissions, implicit bias toward socially-salient attributes such as race, gender, or sexual orientation of candidates is known to produce persistent inequality and reduce aggregate utility for the decision maker. Interventions such as the Rooney Rule and its generalizations, which require the decision maker to select at least a specified number of individuals from each affected group, have been proposed to mitigate the adverse effects of implicit bias in selection. Recent works have established that such lower-bound constraints can be very effective in improving aggregate utility in the case when each individual belongs to at most one affected group. However, in several settings, individuals may belong to multiple affected groups and, consequently, face more extreme implicit bias due to this intersectionality. We consider independently drawn utilities and show that, in the intersectional case, the aforementioned non-intersectional constraints can only recover part of the total utility achievable in the absence of implicit bias. On the other hand, we show that if one includes appropriate lower-bound constraints on the intersections, almost all the utility achievable in the absence of implicit bias can be recovered. Thus, intersectional constraints can offer a significant advantage over a reductionist dimension-by-dimension non-intersectional approach to reducing inequality.


Technology Ethics in Action: Critical and Interdisciplinary Perspectives

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This special issue interrogates the meaning and impacts of "tech ethics": the embedding of ethics into digital technology research, development, use, and governance. In response to concerns about the social harms associated with digital technologies, many individuals and institutions have articulated the need for a greater emphasis on ethics in digital technology. Yet as more groups embrace the concept of ethics, critical discourses have emerged questioning whose ethics are being centered, whether "ethics" is the appropriate frame for improving technology, and what it means to develop "ethical" technology in practice. This interdisciplinary issue takes up these questions, interrogating the relationships among ethics, technology, and society in action. This special issue engages with the normative and contested notions of ethics itself, how ethics has been integrated with technology across domains, and potential paths forward to support more just and egalitarian technology. Rather than starting from philosophical theories, the authors in this issue orient their articles around the real-world discourses and impacts of tech ethics--i.e., tech ethics in action.


Assistant/Associate Teaching Faculty

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The School of Data Science [SDS] at UNC Charlotte is an interdisciplinary unit that is supported by the Academic Affairs' Office of the Provost, the College of Computing and Informatics, the Belk College of Business, the College of Health and Human Services, the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, the William States Lee College of Engineering, as well as other academic units. SDS oversees two graduate programs in Health Informatics and Analytics [HIA] and Data Science and Business Analytics [DSBA] with over 300 students enrolled. A new undergraduate degree was launched in Spring 2021 and has quickly grown to nearly 100 majors. A Ph.D. program is in the planning stage. The vision of the School of Data Science is to become a leader in ethically grounded, interdisciplinary data science and artificial intelligence research and education that serves our diverse local and global community.


Challenges of Artificial Intelligence -- From Machine Learning and Computer Vision to Emotional Intelligence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) has become a part of everyday conversation and our lives. It is considered as the new electricity that is revolutionizing the world. AI is heavily invested in both industry and academy. However, there is also a lot of hype in the current AI debate. AI based on so-called deep learning has achieved impressive results in many problems, but its limits are already visible. AI has been under research since the 1940s, and the industry has seen many ups and downs due to over-expectations and related disappointments that have followed. The purpose of this book is to give a realistic picture of AI, its history, its potential and limitations. We believe that AI is a helper, not a ruler of humans. We begin by describing what AI is and how it has evolved over the decades. After fundamentals, we explain the importance of massive data for the current mainstream of artificial intelligence. The most common representations for AI, methods, and machine learning are covered. In addition, the main application areas are introduced. Computer vision has been central to the development of AI. The book provides a general introduction to computer vision, and includes an exposure to the results and applications of our own research. Emotions are central to human intelligence, but little use has been made in AI. We present the basics of emotional intelligence and our own research on the topic. We discuss super-intelligence that transcends human understanding, explaining why such achievement seems impossible on the basis of present knowledge,and how AI could be improved. Finally, a summary is made of the current state of AI and what to do in the future. In the appendix, we look at the development of AI education, especially from the perspective of contents at our own university.


Top 100 Most Read Interviews of Influential Tech Leaders by Analytics Insight

#artificialintelligence

'Business is an art and business leaders are artists', a well said a statement that is proving to be true every time a top leader takes amazing decisions for his organization. Although businesses rise and fall as times change, leaders never fail to be at the forefront to give their best. However, the key to long-term sustained success is great leadership and the ability of an executive to embrace the evolving trends. While talking about trends, the first thing that comes to our mind is artificial intelligence and disruptive technologies that are driving the next generation towards major digitization. The idea of technology came to practical usage when men thought that they needed machines to replace human activities. The core of such machines is to mimic or outperform human cognition. Although the concept of artificial intelligence came into existence in the 1950s, it didn't get fruition till the 1990s when technology hit the mainstream applications. Since then, the rise of technology has been enabled by exponentially faster and more powerful computers and large, complex datasets. Today, we have many futuristic technologies like machine learning, autonomous systems, data analytics, data science, and AR/VR in play. On the other hand, the enormous inflow of data has also contributed to this growth. In the digital world, development is highly reliant on technological advancement. Organizations across diverse industries are processing data to find insights and data-driven answers. Apart from laymen and consumers, it is the business leaders and corporate executives who have joined the bandwagon of the population to use artificial intelligence to the fullest. These trailblazing leaders are now increasingly using technology to optimize performance and experiment with new explorations. Their success story is what the world needs to hear. Analytics Insight has listed the top 100 such interviews that describe the journey of tech leaders and companies. Engineering and mining companies have faced a growing range of pressures in recent years, including price volatility, the need to drill down deeper to find new resources, and an industry-wide skills shortage. To address these challenges, many mining companies have embraced digital technology to enhance engineering design and develop smart mines'. Ausenco is a tech-savvy engineering company that delivers innovative, value-add consulting services, project delivery, asset operations, and maintenance solutions to the mining and metals, oil and gas, and industrial sectors….


Randomized Classifiers vs Human Decision-Makers: Trustworthy AI May Have to Act Randomly and Society Seems to Accept This

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

As \emph{artificial intelligence} (AI) systems are increasingly involved in decisions affecting our lives, ensuring that automated decision-making is fair and ethical has become a top priority. Intuitively, we feel that akin to human decisions, judgments of artificial agents should necessarily be grounded in some moral principles. Yet a decision-maker (whether human or artificial) can only make truly ethical (based on any ethical theory) and fair (according to any notion of fairness) decisions if full information on all the relevant factors on which the decision is based are available at the time of decision-making. This raises two problems: (1) In settings, where we rely on AI systems that are using classifiers obtained with supervised learning, some induction/generalization is present and some relevant attributes may not be present even during learning. (2) Modeling such decisions as games reveals that any -- however ethical -- pure strategy is inevitably susceptible to exploitation. Moreover, in many games, a Nash Equilibrium can only be obtained by using mixed strategies, i.e., to achieve mathematically optimal outcomes, decisions must be randomized. In this paper, we argue that in supervised learning settings, there exist random classifiers that perform at least as well as deterministic classifiers, and may hence be the optimal choice in many circumstances. We support our theoretical results with an empirical study indicating a positive societal attitude towards randomized artificial decision-makers, and discuss some policy and implementation issues related to the use of random classifiers that relate to and are relevant for current AI policy and standardization initiatives.


Survey XII: What Is the Future of Ethical AI Design? – Imagining the Internet

#artificialintelligence

Results released June 16, 2021 – Pew Research Center and Elon University's Imagining the Internet Center asked experts where they thought efforts aimed at ethical artificial intelligence design would stand in the year 2030. Some 602 technology innovators, developers, business and policy leaders, researchers and activists responded to this specific question. The Question – Regarding the application of AI Ethics by 2030: In recent years, there have been scores of convenings and even more papers generated proposing ethical frameworks for the application of artificial intelligence (AI). They cover a host of issues including transparency, justice and fairness, privacy, freedom and human autonomy, beneficence and non-maleficence, freedom, trust, sustainability and dignity. Our questions here seek your predictions about the possibilities for such efforts. By 2030, will most of the AI systems being used by organizations of all sorts employ ethical principles focused primarily on the public ...


The State of AI Ethics Report (Volume 5)

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This report from the Montreal AI Ethics Institute covers the most salient progress in research and reporting over the second quarter of 2021 in the field of AI ethics with a special emphasis on "Environment and AI", "Creativity and AI", and "Geopolitics and AI." The report also features an exclusive piece titled "Critical Race Quantum Computer" that applies ideas from quantum physics to explain the complexities of human characteristics and how they can and should shape our interactions with each other. The report also features special contributions on the subject of pedagogy in AI ethics, sociology and AI ethics, and organizational challenges to implementing AI ethics in practice. Given MAIEI's mission to highlight scholars from around the world working on AI ethics issues, the report also features two spotlights sharing the work of scholars operating in Singapore and Mexico helping to shape policy measures as they relate to the responsible use of technology. The report also has an extensive section covering the gamut of issues when it comes to the societal impacts of AI covering areas of bias, privacy, transparency, accountability, fairness, interpretability, disinformation, policymaking, law, regulations, and moral philosophy.


The Role of Social Movements, Coalitions, and Workers in Resisting Harmful Artificial Intelligence and Contributing to the Development of Responsible AI

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

There is mounting public concern over the influence that AI based systems has in our society. Coalitions in all sectors are acting worldwide to resist hamful applications of AI. From indigenous people addressing the lack of reliable data, to smart city stakeholders, to students protesting the academic relationships with sex trafficker and MIT donor Jeffery Epstein, the questionable ethics and values of those heavily investing in and profiting from AI are under global scrutiny. There are biased, wrongful, and disturbing assumptions embedded in AI algorithms that could get locked in without intervention. Our best human judgment is needed to contain AI's harmful impact. Perhaps one of the greatest contributions of AI will be to make us ultimately understand how important human wisdom truly is in life on earth.


Introducing Artificial Intelligence Training in Medical Education

#artificialintelligence

Global health care expenditure has been projected to grow from US $7.7 trillion in 2017 to US $10 trillion in 2022 at a rate of 5.4% [1]. This translates into health care being an average of 9% of gross domestic product among developed countries [2,3]. Some key global trends that have led to this include tax reform and policy changes in the United States that could impact the expansion of health care access and affordability (Affordable Care Act) [4], implications on the United Kingdom's health care spend based on the decision to leave the European Union [5], population growth and rise in wealth in both China and India [6-8], implementation of socioeconomic policy reform for health care in Russia [9], attempts to make universal health care effective in Argentina [10], massive push for electronic health and telemedicine in Africa [11], and the impact of an unprecedented pace of population aging around the world [12]. From clinicians' perspective there are many important trends that are affecting the way they deliver care of which the growth in medical information is alarming. It took 50 years for medical information to double in 1950. In 1980, it took 7 years. In 2010, it was 3.5 years and is now projected to double in 73 days by 2020 [13].