Every summer, I get the travel itch. Before you head out, make sure your home is locked down. The bad news is security cameras, from video doorbells to a full-fledged security system, aren't always hack-proof out of the box. Tap or click here for the steps to make sure only you can access your security and video doorbell camera's feed. Speaking of cameras, best check your rental for any hidden cameras.
To understand the promise and peril of artificial intelligence for food safety, consider the story of Larry Brilliant. Brilliant is a self-described "spiritual seeker," "social change addict," and "rock doc." During his medical internship in 1969, he responded to a San Francisco Chronicle columnist's call for medical help to Native Americans then occupying Alcatraz. Then came Warner Bros.' call to have him join the cast of Medicine Ball Caravan, a sort-of sequel to Woodstock Nation. That caravan ultimately led to a detour to India, where Brilliant spent 2 years studying at the foot of the Himalayas in a monastery under guru Neem Karoli Baba. Toward the end of the stay, Karoli Baba informed Brilliant of his calling: join the World Health Organization (WHO) and eradicate smallpox. He joined the WHO as a medical health officer, as a part of a team making over 1 billion house calls collectively. In 1977, he observed the last human with smallpox, leading WHO to declare the disease eradicated. After a decade battling smallpox, Brilliant went on to establish and lead foundations and start-up companies, and serve as a professor of international health at the University of Michigan. As one corporate brand manager wrote, "There are stories that are so incredible that not even the creative minds that fuel Hollywood could write them with a straight face."
MIT researchers have created the first fabric-fiber to have digital capabilities, ready to collect, store and analyze data using a neural network. In a first, the digital fiber contains memory, temperature sensors, and a trained neural network program for inferring physical activity. MIT researchers have created the first fiber with digital capabilities, able to sense, store, analyze, and infer activity after being sewn into a shirt. Yoel Fink, who is a professor of material sciences and electrical engineering, a Research Laboratory of Electronics principal investigator, and the senior author on the study, says digital fibers expand the possibilities for fabrics to uncover the context of hidden patterns in the human body that could be used for physical performance monitoring, medical inference, and early disease detection. Or, you might someday store your wedding music in the gown you wore on the big day -- more on that later.
While AI has benefited humans, it may also harm humans if not appropriately developed. We conducted a literature review of current related work in developing AI systems from an HCI perspective. Different from other approaches, our focus is on the unique characteristics of AI technology and the differences between non-AI computing systems and AI systems. We further elaborate on the human-centered AI (HCAI) approach that we proposed in 2019. Our review and analysis highlight unique issues in developing AI systems which HCI professionals have not encountered in non-AI computing systems. To further enable the implementation of HCAI, we promote the research and application of human-AI interaction (HAII) as an interdisciplinary collaboration. There are many opportunities for HCI professionals to play a key role to make unique contributions to the main HAII areas as we identified. To support future HCI practice in the HAII area, we also offer enhanced HCI methods and strategic recommendations. In conclusion, we believe that promoting the HAII research and application will further enable the implementation of HCAI, enabling HCI professionals to address the unique issues of AI systems and develop human-centered AI systems.
Natural language processing (NLP) research combines the study of universal principles, through basic science, with applied science targeting specific use cases and settings. However, the process of exchange between basic NLP and applications is often assumed to emerge naturally, resulting in many innovations going unapplied and many important questions left unstudied. We describe a new paradigm of Translational NLP, which aims to structure and facilitate the processes by which basic and applied NLP research inform one another. Translational NLP thus presents a third research paradigm, focused on understanding the challenges posed by application needs and how these challenges can drive innovation in basic science and technology design. We show that many significant advances in NLP research have emerged from the intersection of basic principles with application needs, and present a conceptual framework outlining the stakeholders and key questions in translational research. Our framework provides a roadmap for developing Translational NLP as a dedicated research area, and identifies general translational principles to facilitate exchange between basic and applied research.
The potential presented by Artificial Intelligence (AI) for healthcare has long been recognised by the technical community. More recently, this potential has been recognised by policymakers, resulting in considerable public and private investment in the development of AI for healthcare across the globe. Despite this, excepting limited success stories, real-world implementation of AI systems into front-line healthcare has been limited. There are numerous reasons for this, but a main contributory factor is the lack of internationally accepted, or formalised, regulatory standards to assess AI safety and impact and effectiveness. This is a well-recognised problem with numerous ongoing research and policy projects to overcome it. Our intention here is to contribute to this problem-solving effort by seeking to set out a minimally viable framework for evaluating the safety, acceptability and efficacy of AI systems for healthcare. We do this by conducting a systematic search across Scopus, PubMed and Google Scholar to identify all the relevant literature published between January 1970 and November 2020 related to the evaluation of: output performance; efficacy; and real-world use of AI systems, and synthesising the key themes according to the stages of evaluation: pre-clinical (theoretical phase); exploratory phase; definitive phase; and post-market surveillance phase (monitoring). The result is a framework to guide AI system developers, policymakers, and regulators through a sufficient evaluation of an AI system designed for use in healthcare.
Mapping of spatial hotspots, i.e., regions with significantly higher rates or probability density of generating certain events (e.g., disease or crime cases), is a important task in diverse societal domains, including public health, public safety, transportation, agriculture, environmental science, etc. Clustering techniques required by these domains differ from traditional clustering methods due to the high economic and social costs of spurious results (e.g., false alarms of crime clusters). As a result, statistical rigor is needed explicitly to control the rate of spurious detections. To address this challenge, techniques for statistically-robust clustering have been extensively studied by the data mining and statistics communities. In this survey we present an up-to-date and detailed review of the models and algorithms developed by this field. We first present a general taxonomy of the clustering process with statistical rigor, covering key steps of data and statistical modeling, region enumeration and maximization, significance testing, and data update. We further discuss different paradigms and methods within each of key steps. Finally, we highlight research gaps and potential future directions, which may serve as a stepping stone in generating new ideas and thoughts in this growing field and beyond.
Artificial intelligence (AI) has potential to drive game-changing improvements for underserved communities in global health. In response, The Rockefeller Foundation and USAID partnered with the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to develop AI in Global Health: Defining a Collective Path Forward. Research began with a broad scan of instances where artificial intelligence is being used, tested, or considered in healthcare, resulting in a catalogue of over 240 examples. This grouping involves tools that leverage AI to monitor and assess population health, and select and target public health interventions based on AI-enabled predictive analytics. It includes AI-driven data processing methods that map the spread and burden of disease while AI predictive analytics are then used to project future disease spread of existing and possible outbreaks.
Medical systems in general, and patient treatment decisions and outcomes in particular, are affected by bias based on gender and other demographic elements. As language models are increasingly applied to medicine, there is a growing interest in building algorithmic fairness into processes impacting patient care. Much of the work addressing this question has focused on biases encoded in language models -- statistical estimates of the relationships between concepts derived from distant reading of corpora. Building on this work, we investigate how word choices made by healthcare practitioners and language models interact with regards to bias. We identify and remove gendered language from two clinical-note datasets and describe a new debiasing procedure using BERT-based gender classifiers. We show minimal degradation in health condition classification tasks for low- to medium-levels of bias removal via data augmentation. Finally, we compare the bias semantically encoded in the language models with the bias empirically observed in health records. This work outlines an interpretable approach for using data augmentation to identify and reduce the potential for bias in natural language processing pipelines.
We now turn to understanding the impact that COVID-19 had on the personal productivity and well-being of information workers as their work practices were impacted by remote work. This chapter overviews people's productivity, satisfaction, and work patterns, and shows that the challenges and benefits of remote work are closely linked. Looking forward, the infrastructure surrounding work will need to evolve to help people adapt to the challenges of remote and hybrid work.