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Controlling Confusion via Generalisation Bounds

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We establish new generalisation bounds for multiclass classification by abstracting to a more general setting of discretised error types. Extending the PAC-Bayes theory, we are hence able to provide fine-grained bounds on performance for multiclass classification, as well as applications to other learning problems including discretisation of regression losses. Tractable training objectives are derived from the bounds. The bounds are uniform over all weightings of the discretised error types and thus can be used to bound weightings not foreseen at training, including the full confusion matrix in the multiclass classification case.


Latent gaze information in highly dynamic decision-tasks

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Digitization is penetrating more and more areas of life. Tasks are increasingly being completed digitally, and are therefore not only fulfilled faster, more efficiently but also more purposefully and successfully. The rapid developments in the field of artificial intelligence in recent years have played a major role in this, as they brought up many helpful approaches to build on. At the same time, the eyes, their movements, and the meaning of these movements are being progressively researched. The combination of these developments has led to exciting approaches. In this dissertation, I present some of these approaches which I worked on during my Ph.D. First, I provide insight into the development of models that use artificial intelligence to connect eye movements with visual expertise. This is demonstrated for two domains or rather groups of people: athletes in decision-making actions and surgeons in arthroscopic procedures. The resulting models can be considered as digital diagnostic models for automatic expertise recognition. Furthermore, I show approaches that investigate the transferability of eye movement patterns to different expertise domains and subsequently, important aspects of techniques for generalization. Finally, I address the temporal detection of confusion based on eye movement data. The results suggest the use of the resulting model as a clock signal for possible digital assistance options in the training of young professionals. An interesting aspect of my research is that I was able to draw on very valuable data from DFB youth elite athletes as well as on long-standing experts in arthroscopy. In particular, the work with the DFB data attracted the interest of radio and print media, namely DeutschlandFunk Nova and SWR DasDing. All resulting articles presented here have been published in internationally renowned journals or at conferences.


Causal Inference Using Tractable Circuits

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The aim of this paper is to discuss a recent result which shows that probabilistic inference in the presence of (unknown) causal mechanisms can be tractable for models that have traditionally been viewed as intractable. This result was reported recently in [15] to facilitate model-based supervised learning but it can be interpreted in a causality context as follows. One can compile a non-parametric causal graph into an arithmetic circuit that supports inference in time linear in the circuit size. The circuit is also non-parametric so it can be used to estimate parameters from data and to further reason (in linear time) about the causal graph parametrized by these estimates. Moreover, the circuit size can sometimes be bounded even when the treewidth of the causal graph is not, leading to tractable inference on models that have been deemed intractable previously. This has been enabled by a new technique that can exploit causal mechanisms computationally but without needing to know their identities (the classical setup in causal inference). Our goal is to provide a causality-oriented exposure to these new results and to speculate on how they may potentially contribute to more scalable and versatile causal inference.


Questions for Flat-Minima Optimization of Modern Neural Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

For training neural networks, flat-minima optimizers that seek to find parameters in neighborhoods having uniformly low loss (flat minima) have been shown to improve upon stochastic and adaptive gradient-based methods. Two methods for finding flat minima stand out: 1. Averaging methods (i.e., Stochastic Weight Averaging, SWA), and 2. Minimax methods (i.e., Sharpness Aware Minimization, SAM). However, despite similar motivations, there has been limited investigation into their properties and no comprehensive comparison between them. In this work, we investigate the loss surfaces from a systematic benchmarking of these approaches across computer vision, natural language processing, and graph learning tasks. The results lead to a simple hypothesis: since both approaches find different flat solutions, combining them should improve generalization even further. We verify this improves over either flat-minima approach in 39 out of 42 cases. When it does not, we investigate potential reasons. We hope our results across image, graph, and text data will help researchers to improve deep learning optimizers, and practitioners to pinpoint the optimizer for the problem at hand.


Grad2Task: Improved Few-shot Text Classification Using Gradients for Task Representation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Large pretrained language models (LMs) like BERT have improved performance in many disparate natural language processing (NLP) tasks. However, fine tuning such models requires a large number of training examples for each target task. Simultaneously, many realistic NLP problems are "few shot", without a sufficiently large training set. In this work, we propose a novel conditional neural process-based approach for few-shot text classification that learns to transfer from other diverse tasks with rich annotation. Our key idea is to represent each task using gradient information from a base model and to train an adaptation network that modulates a text classifier conditioned on the task representation. While previous task-aware few-shot learners represent tasks by input encoding, our novel task representation is more powerful, as the gradient captures input-output relationships of a task. Experimental results show that our approach outperforms traditional fine-tuning, sequential transfer learning, and state-of-the-art meta learning approaches on a collection of diverse few-shot tasks. We further conducted analysis and ablations to justify our design choices.


A Survey on Visual Transfer Learning using Knowledge Graphs

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Recent approaches of computer vision utilize deep learning methods as they perform quite well if training and testing domains follow the same underlying data distribution. However, it has been shown that minor variations in the images that occur when using these methods in the real world can lead to unpredictable errors. Transfer learning is the area of machine learning that tries to prevent these errors. Especially, approaches that augment image data using auxiliary knowledge encoded in language embeddings or knowledge graphs (KGs) have achieved promising results in recent years. This survey focuses on visual transfer learning approaches using KGs. KGs can represent auxiliary knowledge either in an underlying graph-structured schema or in a vector-based knowledge graph embedding. Intending to enable the reader to solve visual transfer learning problems with the help of specific KG-DL configurations we start with a description of relevant modeling structures of a KG of various expressions, such as directed labeled graphs, hypergraphs, and hyper-relational graphs. We explain the notion of feature extractor, while specifically referring to visual and semantic features. We provide a broad overview of knowledge graph embedding methods and describe several joint training objectives suitable to combine them with high dimensional visual embeddings. The main section introduces four different categories on how a KG can be combined with a DL pipeline: 1) Knowledge Graph as a Reviewer; 2) Knowledge Graph as a Trainee; 3) Knowledge Graph as a Trainer; and 4) Knowledge Graph as a Peer. To help researchers find evaluation benchmarks, we provide an overview of generic KGs and a set of image processing datasets and benchmarks including various types of auxiliary knowledge. Last, we summarize related surveys and give an outlook about challenges and open issues for future research.


The First AI4TSP Competition: Learning to Solve Stochastic Routing Problems

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The TSP is one of the classical combinatorial optimization problems, with many variants inspired by real-world applications. This first competition asked the participants to develop algorithms to solve a time-dependent orienteering problem with stochastic weights and time windows (TD-OPSWTW). It focused on two types of learning approaches: surrogate-based optimization and deep reinforcement learning. In this paper, we describe the problem, the setup of the competition, the winning methods, and give an overview of the results. The winning methods described in this work have advanced the state-of-the-art in using AI for stochastic routing problems. Overall, by organizing this competition we have introduced routing problems as an interesting problem setting for AI researchers. The simulator of the problem has been made open-source and can be used by other researchers as a benchmark for new AI methods.


A Taxonomy of Information Attributes for Test Case Prioritisation: Applicability, Machine Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Most software companies have extensive test suites and re-run parts of them continuously to ensure recent changes have no adverse effects. Since test suites are costly to execute, industry needs methods for test case prioritisation (TCP). Recently, TCP methods use machine learning (ML) to exploit the information known about the system under test (SUT) and its test cases. However, the value added by ML-based TCP methods should be critically assessed with respect to the cost of collecting the information. This paper analyses two decades of TCP research, and presents a taxonomy of 91 information attributes that have been used. The attributes are classified with respect to their information sources and the characteristics of their extraction process. Based on this taxonomy, TCP methods validated with industrial data and those applying ML are analysed in terms of information availability, attribute combination and definition of data features suitable for ML. Relying on a high number of information attributes, assuming easy access to SUT code and simplified testing environments are identified as factors that might hamper industrial applicability of ML-based TCP. The TePIA taxonomy provides a reference framework to unify terminology and evaluate alternatives considering the cost-benefit of the information attributes.


Fighting Money Laundering with Statistics and Machine Learning: An Introduction and Review

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Money laundering is a profound, global problem. Nonetheless, there is little statistical and machine learning research on the topic. In this paper, we focus on anti-money laundering in banks. To help organize existing research in the field, we propose a unifying terminology and provide a review of the literature. This is structured around two central tasks: (i) client risk profiling and (ii) suspicious behavior flagging. We find that client risk profiling is characterized by diagnostics, i.e., efforts to find and explain risk factors. Suspicious behavior flagging, on the other hand, is characterized by non-disclosed features and hand-crafted risk indices. Finally, we discuss directions for future research. One major challenge is the lack of public data sets. This may, potentially, be addressed by synthetic data generation. Other possible research directions include semi-supervised and deep learning, interpretability and fairness of the results.


In Defense of the Unitary Scalarization for Deep Multi-Task Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Recent multi-task learning research argues against unitary scalarization, where training simply minimizes the sum of the task losses. Several ad-hoc multi-task optimization algorithms have instead been proposed, inspired by various hypotheses about what makes multi-task settings difficult. The majority of these optimizers require per-task gradients, and introduce significant memory, runtime, and implementation overhead. We present a theoretical analysis suggesting that many specialized multi-task optimizers can be interpreted as forms of regularization. Moreover, we show that, when coupled with standard regularization and stabilization techniques from single-task learning, unitary scalarization matches or improves upon the performance of complex multi-task optimizers in both supervised and reinforcement learning settings. We believe our results call for a critical reevaluation of recent research in the area.