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Submodularity In Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this manuscript, we offer a gentle review of submodularity and supermodularity and their properties. We offer a plethora of submodular definitions; a full description of a number of example submodular functions and their generalizations; example discrete constraints; a discussion of basic algorithms for maximization, minimization, and other operations; a brief overview of continuous submodular extensions; and some historical applications. We then turn to how submodularity is useful in machine learning and artificial intelligence. This includes summarization, and we offer a complete account of the differences between and commonalities amongst sketching, coresets, extractive and abstractive summarization in NLP, data distillation and condensation, and data subset selection and feature selection. We discuss a variety of ways to produce a submodular function useful for machine learning, including heuristic hand-crafting, learning or approximately learning a submodular function or aspects thereof, and some advantages of the use of a submodular function as a coreset producer. We discuss submodular combinatorial information functions, and how submodularity is useful for clustering, data partitioning, parallel machine learning, active and semi-supervised learning, probabilistic modeling, and structured norms and loss functions.


Correcting diacritics and typos with ByT5 transformer model

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Due to the fast pace of life and online communications, the prevalence of English and the QWERTY keyboard, people tend to forgo using diacritics, make typographical errors (typos) when typing. Restoring diacritics and correcting spelling is important for proper language use and disambiguation of texts for both humans and downstream algorithms. However, both of these problems are typically addressed separately, i.e., state-of-the-art diacritics restoration methods do not tolerate other typos. In this work, we tackle both problems at once by employing newly-developed ByT5 byte-level transformer models. Our simultaneous diacritics restoration and typos correction approach demonstrates near state-of-the-art performance in 13 languages, reaching >96% of the alpha-word accuracy. We also perform diacritics restoration alone on 12 benchmark datasets with the additional one for the Lithuanian language. The experimental investigation proves that our approach is able to achieve comparable results (>98%) to previously reported despite being trained on fewer data. Our approach is also able to restore diacritics in words not seen during training with >76% accuracy. We also show the accuracies to further improve with longer training. All this shows a great real-world application potential of our suggested methods to more data, languages, and error classes.


An Efficient and Accurate Rough Set for Feature Selection, Classification and Knowledge Representation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper present a strong data mining method based on rough set, which can realize feature selection, classification and knowledge representation at the same time. Rough set has good interpretability, and is a popular method for feature selections. But low efficiency and low accuracy are its main drawbacks that limits its application ability. In this paper,corresponding to the accuracy, we first find the ineffectiveness of rough set because of overfitting, especially in processing noise attribute, and propose a robust measurement for an attribute, called relative importance.we proposed the concept of "rough concept tree" for knowledge representation and classification. Experimental results on public benchmark data sets show that the proposed framework achieves higher accurcy than seven popular or the state-of-the-art feature selection methods.


Winning solutions and post-challenge analyses of the ChaLearn AutoDL challenge 2019

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper reports the results and post-challenge analyses of ChaLearn's AutoDL challenge series, which helped sorting out a profusion of AutoML solutions for Deep Learning (DL) that had been introduced in a variety of settings, but lacked fair comparisons. All input data modalities (time series, images, videos, text, tabular) were formatted as tensors and all tasks were multi-label classification problems. Code submissions were executed on hidden tasks, with limited time and computational resources, pushing solutions that get results quickly. In this setting, DL methods dominated, though popular Neural Architecture Search (NAS) was impractical. Solutions relied on fine-tuned pre-trained networks, with architectures matching data modality. Post-challenge tests did not reveal improvements beyond the imposed time limit. While no component is particularly original or novel, a high level modular organization emerged featuring a "meta-learner", "data ingestor", "model selector", "model/learner", and "evaluator". This modularity enabled ablation studies, which revealed the importance of (off-platform) meta-learning, ensembling, and efficient data management. Experiments on heterogeneous module combinations further confirm the (local) optimality of the winning solutions. Our challenge legacy includes an ever-lasting benchmark (http://autodl.chalearn.org), the open-sourced code of the winners, and a free "AutoDL self-service".


Challenges of Artificial Intelligence -- From Machine Learning and Computer Vision to Emotional Intelligence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) has become a part of everyday conversation and our lives. It is considered as the new electricity that is revolutionizing the world. AI is heavily invested in both industry and academy. However, there is also a lot of hype in the current AI debate. AI based on so-called deep learning has achieved impressive results in many problems, but its limits are already visible. AI has been under research since the 1940s, and the industry has seen many ups and downs due to over-expectations and related disappointments that have followed. The purpose of this book is to give a realistic picture of AI, its history, its potential and limitations. We believe that AI is a helper, not a ruler of humans. We begin by describing what AI is and how it has evolved over the decades. After fundamentals, we explain the importance of massive data for the current mainstream of artificial intelligence. The most common representations for AI, methods, and machine learning are covered. In addition, the main application areas are introduced. Computer vision has been central to the development of AI. The book provides a general introduction to computer vision, and includes an exposure to the results and applications of our own research. Emotions are central to human intelligence, but little use has been made in AI. We present the basics of emotional intelligence and our own research on the topic. We discuss super-intelligence that transcends human understanding, explaining why such achievement seems impossible on the basis of present knowledge,and how AI could be improved. Finally, a summary is made of the current state of AI and what to do in the future. In the appendix, we look at the development of AI education, especially from the perspective of contents at our own university.


Class-aware Sounding Objects Localization via Audiovisual Correspondence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Audiovisual scenes are pervasive in our daily life. It is commonplace for humans to discriminatively localize different sounding objects but quite challenging for machines to achieve class-aware sounding objects localization without category annotations, i.e., localizing the sounding object and recognizing its category. To address this problem, we propose a two-stage step-by-step learning framework to localize and recognize sounding objects in complex audiovisual scenarios using only the correspondence between audio and vision. First, we propose to determine the sounding area via coarse-grained audiovisual correspondence in the single source cases. Then visual features in the sounding area are leveraged as candidate object representations to establish a category-representation object dictionary for expressive visual character extraction. We generate class-aware object localization maps in cocktail-party scenarios and use audiovisual correspondence to suppress silent areas by referring to this dictionary. Finally, we employ category-level audiovisual consistency as the supervision to achieve fine-grained audio and sounding object distribution alignment. Experiments on both realistic and synthesized videos show that our model is superior in localizing and recognizing objects as well as filtering out silent ones. We also transfer the learned audiovisual network into the unsupervised object detection task, obtaining reasonable performance.


Adversarial Attacks against Windows PE Malware Detection: A Survey of the State-of-the-Art

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The malware has been being one of the most damaging threats to computers that span across multiple operating systems and various file formats. To defend against the ever-increasing and ever-evolving threats of malware, tremendous efforts have been made to propose a variety of malware detection methods that attempt to effectively and efficiently detect malware. Recent studies have shown that, on the one hand, existing ML and DL enable the superior detection of newly emerging and previously unseen malware. However, on the other hand, ML and DL models are inherently vulnerable to adversarial attacks in the form of adversarial examples, which are maliciously generated by slightly and carefully perturbing the legitimate inputs to confuse the targeted models. Basically, adversarial attacks are initially extensively studied in the domain of computer vision, and some quickly expanded to other domains, including NLP, speech recognition and even malware detection. In this paper, we focus on malware with the file format of portable executable (PE) in the family of Windows operating systems, namely Windows PE malware, as a representative case to study the adversarial attack methods in such adversarial settings. To be specific, we start by first outlining the general learning framework of Windows PE malware detection based on ML/DL and subsequently highlighting three unique challenges of performing adversarial attacks in the context of PE malware. We then conduct a comprehensive and systematic review to categorize the state-of-the-art adversarial attacks against PE malware detection, as well as corresponding defenses to increase the robustness of PE malware detection. We conclude the paper by first presenting other related attacks against Windows PE malware detection beyond the adversarial attacks and then shedding light on future research directions and opportunities.


Artificial Intellgence -- Application in Life Sciences and Beyond. The Upper Rhine Artificial Intelligence Symposium UR-AI 2021

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The TriRhenaTech alliance presents the accepted papers of the 'Upper-Rhine Artificial Intelligence Symposium' held on October 27th 2021 in Kaiserslautern, Germany. Topics of the conference are applications of Artificial Intellgence in life sciences, intelligent systems, industry 4.0, mobility and others. The TriRhenaTech alliance is a network of universities in the Upper-Rhine Trinational Metropolitan Region comprising of the German universities of applied sciences in Furtwangen, Kaiserslautern, Karlsruhe, Offenburg and Trier, the Baden-Wuerttemberg Cooperative State University Loerrach, the French university network Alsace Tech (comprised of 14 'grandes \'ecoles' in the fields of engineering, architecture and management) and the University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland. The alliance's common goal is to reinforce the transfer of knowledge, research, and technology, as well as the cross-border mobility of students.


Simulation Intelligence: Towards a New Generation of Scientific Methods

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The original "Seven Motifs" set forth a roadmap of essential methods for the field of scientific computing, where a motif is an algorithmic method that captures a pattern of computation and data movement. We present the "Nine Motifs of Simulation Intelligence", a roadmap for the development and integration of the essential algorithms necessary for a merger of scientific computing, scientific simulation, and artificial intelligence. We call this merger simulation intelligence (SI), for short. We argue the motifs of simulation intelligence are interconnected and interdependent, much like the components within the layers of an operating system. Using this metaphor, we explore the nature of each layer of the simulation intelligence operating system stack (SI-stack) and the motifs therein: (1) Multi-physics and multi-scale modeling; (2) Surrogate modeling and emulation; (3) Simulation-based inference; (4) Causal modeling and inference; (5) Agent-based modeling; (6) Probabilistic programming; (7) Differentiable programming; (8) Open-ended optimization; (9) Machine programming. We believe coordinated efforts between motifs offers immense opportunity to accelerate scientific discovery, from solving inverse problems in synthetic biology and climate science, to directing nuclear energy experiments and predicting emergent behavior in socioeconomic settings. We elaborate on each layer of the SI-stack, detailing the state-of-art methods, presenting examples to highlight challenges and opportunities, and advocating for specific ways to advance the motifs and the synergies from their combinations. Advancing and integrating these technologies can enable a robust and efficient hypothesis-simulation-analysis type of scientific method, which we introduce with several use-cases for human-machine teaming and automated science.


A guided journey through non-interactive automatic story generation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We present a literature survey on non-interactive computational story generation. The article starts with the presentation of requirements for creative systems, three types of models of creativity (computational, socio-cultural, and individual), and models of human creative writing. Then it reviews each class of story generation approach depending on the used technology: story-schemas, analogy, rules, planning, evolutionary algorithms, implicit knowledge learning, and explicit knowledge learning. Before the concluding section, the article analyses the contributions of the reviewed work to improve the quality of the generated stories. This analysis addresses the description of the story characters, the use of narrative knowledge including about character believability, and the possible lack of more comprehensive or more detailed knowledge or creativity models. Finally, the article presents concluding remarks in the form of suggestions of research topics that might have a significant impact on the advancement of the state of the art on autonomous non-interactive story generation systems. The article concludes that the autonomous generation and adoption of the main idea to be conveyed and the autonomous design of the creativity ensuring criteria are possibly two of most important topics for future research.