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Lutz's Spoiler Technique Revisited: A Unified Approach to Worst-Case Optimal Entailment of Unions of Conjunctive Queries in Locally-Forward Description Logics

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We present a unified approach to (both finite and unrestricted) worst-case optimal entailment of (unions of) conjunctive queries (U)CQs in the wide class of "locally-forward" description logics. The main technique that we employ is a generalisation of Lutz's spoiler technique, originally developed for CQ entailment in ALCHQ. Our result closes numerous gaps present in the literature, most notably implying ExpTime-completeness of (U)CQ-querying for any superlogic of ALC contained in ALCHbregQ, and, as we believe, is abstract enough to be employed as a black-box in many new scenarios.


Orchestrating NLP Services for the Legal Domain

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Legal technology is currently receiving a lot of attention from various angles. In this contribution we describe the main technical components of a system that is currently under development in the European innovation project Lynx, which includes partners from industry and research. The key contribution of this paper is a workflow manager that enables the flexible orchestration of workflows based on a portfolio of Natural Language Processing and Content Curation services as well as a Multilingual Legal Knowledge Graph that contains semantic information and meaningful references to legal documents. We also describe different use cases with which we experiment and develop prototypical solutions.


Extensional Higher-Order Paramodulation in Leo-III

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Leo-III is an automated theorem prover for extensional type theory with Henkin semantics and choice. Reasoning with primitive equality is enabled by adapting paramodulation-based proof search to higher-order logic. The prover may cooperate with multiple external specialist reasoning systems such as first-order provers and SMT solvers. Leo-III is compatible with the TPTP/TSTP framework for input formats, reporting results and proofs, and standardized communication between reasoning systems, enabling e.g. proof reconstruction from within proof assistants such as Isabelle/HOL. Leo-III supports reasoning in polymorphic first-order and higher-order logic, in all normal quantified modal logics, as well as in different deontic logics. Its development had initiated the ongoing extension of the TPTP infrastructure to reasoning within non-classical logics.


Life is Random, Time is Not: Markov Decision Processes with Window Objectives

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The window mechanism was introduced by Chatterjee et al. [17] to strengthen classical game objectives with time bounds. It permits to synthesize system controllers that exhibit acceptable behaviors within a configurable time frame, all along their infinite execution, in contrast to the traditional objectives that only require correctness of behaviors in the limit. The window concept has proved its interest in a variety of two-player zero-sum games, thanks to the ability to reason about such time bounds in system specifications, but also the increased tractability that it usually yields. In this work, we extend the window framework to stochastic environments by considering the fundamental threshold probability problem in Markov decision processes for window objectives. That is, given such an objective, we want to synthesize strategies that guarantee satisfying runs with a given probability. We solve this problem for the usual variants of window objectives, where either the time frame is set as a parameter, or we ask if such a time frame exists. We develop a generic approach for window-based objectives and instantiate it for the classical mean-payoff and parity objectives, already considered in games. Our work paves the way to a wide use of the window mechanism in stochastic models.


Efficient and Robust Machine Learning for Real-World Systems

arXiv.org Machine Learning

While machine learning is traditionally a resource intensive task, embedded systems, autonomous navigation and the vision of the Internet-of-Things fuel the interest in resource efficient approaches. These approaches require a carefully chosen trade-off between performance and resource consumption in terms of computation and energy. On top of this, it is crucial to treat uncertainty in a consistent manner in all but the simplest applications of machine learning systems. In particular, a desideratum for any real-world system is to be robust in the presence of outliers and corrupted data, as well as being `aware' of its limits, i.e.\ the system should maintain and provide an uncertainty estimate over its own predictions. These complex demands are among the major challenges in current machine learning research and key to ensure a smooth transition of machine learning technology into every day's applications. In this article, we provide an overview of the current state of the art of machine learning techniques facilitating these real-world requirements. First we provide a comprehensive review of resource-efficiency in deep neural networks with focus on techniques for model size reduction, compression and reduced precision. These techniques can be applied during training or as post-processing and are widely used to reduce both computational complexity and memory footprint. As most (practical) neural networks are limited in their ways to treat uncertainty, we contrast them with probabilistic graphical models, which readily serve these desiderata by means of probabilistic inference. In that way, we provide an extensive overview of the current state-of-the-art of robust and efficient machine learning for real-world systems.


Counting Complexity for Reasoning in Abstract Argumentation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this paper, we consider counting and projected model counting of extensions in abstract argumentation for various semantics. When asking for projected counts we are interested in counting the number of extensions of a given argumentation framework while multiple extensions that are identical when restricted to the projected arguments count as only one projected extension. We establish classical complexity results and parameterized complexity results when the problems are parameterized by treewidth of the undirected argumentation graph. To obtain upper bounds for counting projected extensions, we introduce novel algorithms that exploit small treewidth of the undirected argumentation graph of the input instance by dynamic programming (DP). Our algorithms run in time double or triple exponential in the treewidth depending on the considered semantics. Finally, we take the exponential time hypothesis (ETH) into account and establish lower bounds of bounded treewidth algorithms for counting extensions and projected extension.