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Pietikäinen, Matti, Silven, Olli
Artificial intelligence (AI) has become a part of everyday conversation and our lives. It is considered as the new electricity that is revolutionizing the world. AI is heavily invested in both industry and academy. However, there is also a lot of hype in the current AI debate. AI based on so-called deep learning has achieved impressive results in many problems, but its limits are already visible. AI has been under research since the 1940s, and the industry has seen many ups and downs due to over-expectations and related disappointments that have followed. The purpose of this book is to give a realistic picture of AI, its history, its potential and limitations. We believe that AI is a helper, not a ruler of humans. We begin by describing what AI is and how it has evolved over the decades. After fundamentals, we explain the importance of massive data for the current mainstream of artificial intelligence. The most common representations for AI, methods, and machine learning are covered. In addition, the main application areas are introduced. Computer vision has been central to the development of AI. The book provides a general introduction to computer vision, and includes an exposure to the results and applications of our own research. Emotions are central to human intelligence, but little use has been made in AI. We present the basics of emotional intelligence and our own research on the topic. We discuss super-intelligence that transcends human understanding, explaining why such achievement seems impossible on the basis of present knowledge,and how AI could be improved. Finally, a summary is made of the current state of AI and what to do in the future. In the appendix, we look at the development of AI education, especially from the perspective of contents at our own university.
There is mounting public concern over the influence that AI based systems has in our society. Coalitions in all sectors are acting worldwide to resist hamful applications of AI. From indigenous people addressing the lack of reliable data, to smart city stakeholders, to students protesting the academic relationships with sex trafficker and MIT donor Jeffery Epstein, the questionable ethics and values of those heavily investing in and profiting from AI are under global scrutiny. There are biased, wrongful, and disturbing assumptions embedded in AI algorithms that could get locked in without intervention. Our best human judgment is needed to contain AI's harmful impact. Perhaps one of the greatest contributions of AI will be to make us ultimately understand how important human wisdom truly is in life on earth.
Gao, Zhan, Gama, Fernando, Ribeiro, Alejandro
Graph neural networks (GNNs) learn representations from network data with naturally distributed architectures, rendering them well-suited candidates for decentralized learning. Oftentimes, this decentralized graph support changes with time due to link failures or topology variations. These changes create a mismatch between the graphs on which GNNs were trained and the ones on which they are tested. Online learning can be used to retrain GNNs at testing time, overcoming this issue. However, most online algorithms are centralized and work on convex problems (which GNNs rarely lead to). This paper proposes the Wide and Deep GNN (WD-GNN), a novel architecture that can be easily updated with distributed online learning mechanisms. The WD-GNN comprises two components: the wide part is a bank of linear graph filters and the deep part is a GNN. At training time, the joint architecture learns a nonlinear representation from data. At testing time, the deep part (nonlinear) is left unchanged, while the wide part is retrained online, leading to a convex problem. We derive convergence guarantees for this online retraining procedure and further propose a decentralized alternative. Experiments on the robot swarm control for flocking corroborate theory and show potential of the proposed architecture for distributed online learning.
Have you ever felt overwhelmed by the sheer number of images or documents, or hours of video footage you needed to sort through for a report? Training a machine to do the work for you may be the answer. Learn how artificial intelligence can improve your reporting with the new course from the Knight Center for Journalism in the Americas and instructor John Keefe, "Hands-on Machine Learning Solutions for Journalists." The four-week Big Online Course (BOC) runs from Nov. 18 to Dec. 15, 2019 and costs $95, which includes a certificate for those who successfully complete the course requirements. "At the end of this class, students will have a much better understanding of machine learning. They will actually be able to sort documents, especially images, based on the criteria they set up," said Keefe, who uses these techniques in his work as investigations editor at Quartz.
The term "artificial intelligence" has been around since 1956, and yet many journalists are unfamiliar with its history and impact on the world today, even as its influence grows everywhere, including on how we gather and report the news. The next massive open online course (MOOC) in Spanish, and the Knight Center's first in partnership with Microsoft, will familiarize students with the foundations of artificial intelligence (AI) and how it impacts the news industry. "Artificial Intelligence: How to cover AI and understand its impact on journalism," will run from Oct. 22 to Nov. 25, 2018 and will be taught by Sandra Crucianelli, a veteran instructor for Knight Center MOOCs and a member of the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (ICIJ). "The course will be a wonderful opportunity for those who have not yet become familiar with artificial intelligence technologies," Crucianelli said. "We will be sharing definitions, but also analyzing applications, examples and there also will be online discussions.
Artificial intelligence, defined as intelligence exhibited by machines, has many applications in today's society. More specifically, it is Weak AI, the form of A.I. where programs are developed to perform specific tasks, that is being utilized for a wide range of activities including medical diagnosis, electronic trading, robot control, and remote sensing. AI has been used to develop and advance numerous fields and industries, including finance, healthcare, education, transportation, and more. AI for Good is a movement in which institutions are employing AI to tackle some of the world's greatest economic and social challenges. For example, the University of Southern California launched the Center for Artificial Intelligence in Society, with the goal of using AI to address socially relevant problems such as homelessness. At Stanford, researchers are using AI to analyze satellite images to identify which areas have the highest poverty levels. The Air Operations Division (AOD) uses AI for the rule based expert systems. The AOD has use for artificial intelligence for surrogate operators for combat and training simulators, mission management aids, support systems for tactical decision making, and post processing of the simulator data into symbolic summaries.