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A Distributional Approach to Controlled Text Generation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We propose a Distributional Approach to address Controlled Text Generation from pre-trained Language Models (LMs). This view permits to define, in a single formal framework, "pointwise" and "distributional" constraints over the target LM -- to our knowledge, this is the first approach with such generality -- while minimizing KL divergence with the initial LM distribution. The optimal target distribution is then uniquely determined as an explicit EBM (Energy-Based Model) representation. From that optimal representation we then train the target controlled autoregressive LM through an adaptive distributional variant of Policy Gradient. We conduct a first set of experiments over pointwise constraints showing the advantages of our approach over a set of baselines, in terms of obtaining a controlled LM balancing constraint satisfaction with divergence from the initial LM (GPT-2). We then perform experiments over distributional constraints, a unique feature of our approach, demonstrating its potential as a remedy to the problem of Bias in Language Models. Through an ablation study we show the effectiveness of our adaptive technique for obtaining faster convergence.


Candace Owens slams intelligence agencies over allowing domestic terror to run rampant

FOX News

Trump 2020 communications director Tim Murtaugh weighs in on'America's News HQ.' Conservative activist Candace Owens on Sunday leveled harsh criticism against U.S. intelligence agencies for their supposed inability to root out domestic terrorism while simultaneously being able to "take out" terrorists overseas. "We're supposed to believe that our intelligence agencies can track and take out an Iranian terrorist (Soleimani) overnight but they can't manage to get to the root of ANTIFA and black lives matter-- well-funded domestic terrorist cells that have been operating unchecked for YEARS," she tweeted. Iranian Gen. Qasem Soleimani, the head of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps Quds Forces, was killed in a U.S. drone strike in Baghdad, Iraq on Jan. 3. Administration officials said the strike, authorized by President Trump, was conducted to deter imminent attacks on U.S. interests. Owens' comments follow an evening of unrest that came after the president's supporters were purportedly attacked at the so-called Million MAGA March in Washington, D.C. on Saturday. Many were quick to condemn the media's apparent lack of interest in covering the violence directed at supporters of the president.


Graph-based Topic Extraction from Vector Embeddings of Text Documents: Application to a Corpus of News Articles

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Production of news content is growing at an astonishing rate. To help manage and monitor the sheer amount of text, there is an increasing need to develop efficient methods that can provide insights into emerging content areas, and stratify unstructured corpora of text into `topics' that stem intrinsically from content similarity. Here we present an unsupervised framework that brings together powerful vector embeddings from natural language processing with tools from multiscale graph partitioning that can reveal natural partitions at different resolutions without making a priori assumptions about the number of clusters in the corpus. We show the advantages of graph-based clustering through end-to-end comparisons with other popular clustering and topic modelling methods, and also evaluate different text vector embeddings, from classic Bag-of-Words to Doc2Vec to the recent transformers based model Bert. This comparative work is showcased through an analysis of a corpus of US news coverage during the presidential election year of 2016.


Language Models are Open Knowledge Graphs

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper shows how to construct knowledge graphs (KGs) from pre-trained language models (e.g., BERT, GPT-2/3), without human supervision. Popular KGs (e.g, Wikidata, NELL) are built in either a supervised or semi-supervised manner, requiring humans to create knowledge. Recent deep language models automatically acquire knowledge from large-scale corpora via pre-training. The stored knowledge has enabled the language models to improve downstream NLP tasks, e.g., answering questions, and writing code and articles. In this paper, we propose an unsupervised method to cast the knowledge contained within language models into KGs. We show that KGs are constructed with a single forward pass of the pre-trained language models (without fine-tuning) over the corpora. We demonstrate the quality of the constructed KGs by comparing to two KGs (Wikidata, TAC KBP) created by humans. Our KGs also provide open factual knowledge that is new in the existing KGs. Our code and KGs will be made publicly available.


Multi-document Summarization with Maximal Marginal Relevance-guided Reinforcement Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

While neural sequence learning methods have made significant progress in single-document summarization (SDS), they produce unsatisfactory results on multi-document summarization (MDS). We observe two major challenges when adapting SDS advances to MDS: (1) MDS involves larger search space and yet more limited training data, setting obstacles for neural methods to learn adequate representations; (2) MDS needs to resolve higher information redundancy among the source documents, which SDS methods are less effective to handle. To close the gap, we present RL-MMR, Maximal Margin Relevance-guided Reinforcement Learning for MDS, which unifies advanced neural SDS methods and statistical measures used in classical MDS. RL-MMR casts MMR guidance on fewer promising candidates, which restrains the search space and thus leads to better representation learning. Additionally, the explicit redundancy measure in MMR helps the neural representation of the summary to better capture redundancy. Extensive experiments demonstrate that RL-MMR achieves state-of-the-art performance on benchmark MDS datasets. In particular, we show the benefits of incorporating MMR into end-to-end learning when adapting SDS to MDS in terms of both learning effectiveness and efficiency.


The Radicalization Risks of GPT-3 and Advanced Neural Language Models

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this paper, we expand on our previous research of the potential for abuse of generative language models by assessing GPT-3. Experimenting with prompts representative of different types of extremist narrative, structures of social interaction, and radical ideologies, we find that GPT-3 demonstrates significant improvement over its predecessor, GPT-2, in generating extremist texts. We also show GPT-3's strength in generating text that accurately emulates interactive, informational, and influential content that could be utilized for radicalizing individuals into violent far-right extremist ideologies and behaviors. While OpenAI's preventative measures are strong, the possibility of unregulated copycat technology represents significant risk for large-scale online radicalization and recruitment; thus, in the absence of safeguards, successful and efficient weaponization that requires little experimentation is likely. AI stakeholders, the policymaking community, and governments should begin investing as soon as possible in building social norms, public policy, and educational initiatives to preempt an influx of machine-generated disinformation and propaganda. Mitigation will require effective policy and partnerships across industry, government, and civil society.


Blind Spots in AI Ethics and Biases in AI governance

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

There is an interesting link between critical theory and certain genres of literature that may be of interest to the current debate on AI ethics. While critical theory generally points out certain deficiencies in the present to criticize it, futurology, and literary genres such as Cyber-punk, extrapolate our present deficits in possible dystopian futures to criticize the status quo. Given the great advance of the AI industry in recent years, an increasing number of ethical matters have been raised and debated, usually in the form of ethical guidelines and unpublished manuscripts by governments, private sector, and academic sources. However, recent meta-analyses in the field of AI ethics have raised important questions such as: what is being omitted from published ethical guidelines? Does AI governance occur inclusively and diversely? Is this form of "ethics", based on soft rules and principles, efficient? In this study, I would like to present aspects omitted or barely mentioned in the current debate on AI ethics, and defend the point that applied ethics should not be based on creating only soft versions of real legislation, but rather on criticizing the status quo for everything of value that is disregarded.


GPT-3 Creative Fiction

#artificialintelligence

What if I told a story here, how would that story start?" Thus, the summarization prompt: "My second grader asked me what this passage means: …" When a given prompt isn't working and GPT-3 keeps pivoting into other modes of completion, that may mean that one hasn't constrained it enough by imitating a correct output, and one needs to go further; writing the first few words or sentence of the target output may be necessary.


Which Military Has the Edge in the A.I. Arms Race?

#artificialintelligence

Think of artificial intelligence, and the mind often goes to industrial robots and benign surveillance systems. Increasingly, though, these are steppingstones for Big Brother to enhance capabilities in domestic security and international military warfare. China has co-opted a controversial big data policing program into law enforcement, both for racial profiling of its Uighur minority population and for broader citizen surveillance through facial recognition. Wuhan has an entirely AI-staffed police station. But experts say China's artificial intelligence research is also being adapted for unconventional military warfare in the country's bid to dominate the field over the next decade.


Death by drone: How can states justify targeted killings?

Al Jazeera

In a move that caused a ripple effect across the Middle East, Iranian General Qassem Soleimani was killed in a US drone strike near Baghdad's international airport on January 3. On that day, the Pentagon announced the attack was carried out "at the direction of the president". In a new report examining the legality of armed drones and the Soleimani killing in particular, Agnes Callamard, UN special rapporteur on extrajudicial and arbitrary killings, said the US raid that killed Soleimani was "unlawful". Callamard presented her report at the Human Rights Council in Geneva on Thursday. The United States, which is not a member after quitting the council in 2018, rejected the report saying it gave "a pass to terrorists". In Callamard's view, the consequences of targeted killings by armed drones have been neglected by states.