As the autonomy and capabilities of robotic systems increase, they are expected to play the role of teammates rather than tools and interact with human collaborators in a more realistic manner, creating a more human-like relationship. Given the impact of trust observed in human-robot interaction (HRI), appropriate trust in robotic collaborators is one of the leading factors influencing the performance of human-robot interaction. Team performance can be diminished if people do not trust robots appropriately by disusing or misusing them based on limited experience. Therefore, trust in HRI needs to be calibrated properly, rather than maximized, to let the formation of an appropriate level of trust in human collaborators. For trust calibration in HRI, trust needs to be modeled first. There are many reviews on factors affecting trust in HRI, however, as there are no reviews concentrated on different trust models, in this paper, we review different techniques and methods for trust modeling in HRI. We also present a list of potential directions for further research and some challenges that need to be addressed in future work on human-robot trust modeling.
Simulated warfare between artificial intelligence participants has revealed that "extraordinary forms" of extreme weaponry evolve when combatants fight each other in one-to-one in duels. Researchers at the University of Auckland in New Zealand pitted AI players against each other in a war game to better understand how animals evolve weapons. They found that combatants with improved weapons had a large advantage when fighting in duels, but that this advantage deteriorated when there were more rivals to fight against. The findings suggest that arms races between animals and in other types of conflict are more likely to be accelerated when there are only two opponents. The study was based on a current evolutionary hypothesis that predicts the evolution of elaborate weaponry in duel-based systems, such as the exaggerated horns wielded by male dung beetles and stag deer when fighting over females.