"Today's expert systems deal with domains of narrow specialization. For expert systems to perform competently over a broad range of tasks, they will have to be given very much more knowledge. ... The next generation of expert systems ... will require large knowledge bases. How will we get them?"
– Edward Feigenbaum, Pamela McCorduck, H. Penny Nii, from The Rise of the Expert Company. New York: Times Books, 1988.
Today, we are bombarded by messages about the ways in which artificial intelligence (AI) is changing our world and its future promises and perils. But today's AI, called machine learning, is very different from much of AI in the past. From the 1970s until the 1990s, a very different approach, called "expert systems," appeared poised to radically change society in many of the same ways that today's machine learning seems. Expert systems seek to encode into software systems the experience and understanding of the finest human specialists in everything from diagnosing an infectious disease to identifying the sonar fingerprint of enemy submarines, and then have these systems suggest reasoned decisions and conclusions in new, real-world cases. Today, many of these expert systems are commonplace in everything from systems for maintenance and repair, to automated customer support systems of various sorts.
Expert System is making enhancements to Cogito, its Artificial Intelligence platform that understands textual information and automatically processes natural language, delivering key updates in the areas of knowledge graphs, machine learning, and RPA. Cogito 14.4 enables users to more easily customize its Knowledge Graph of approximately 350,000 concepts connected by 2.8 Million relationships and lets them import targeted knowledge from any sources (such as company repositories Wikipedia or Geonames) in only a few clicks, enabling the platform to resolve references to real-world entities (such as people, companies, locations) and to link them to knowledge repositories by using standardized identifiers. Cogito 14.4 also extends its Natural Language Processing (NLP) extraction pipeline with a new active learning workflow that accelerates machine-learning-based analytics projects. Through an intuitive web application, Cogito 14.4's active learning workflow enables end-users to visualize the quality of extraction and provide feedback to the engine, which iteratively retrains the engine to reach the user's quality goals, thus reducing the amount of manual annotation needed Cogito 14.4 includes a Robotic Process Automation (RPA) connector that extends the use of RPA bots into process automation leveraging knowledge (and not only structured data) as well as requiring human-like judgement. The Cogito RPA Connector leverages deep contextual understanding to extract precise data from unstructured business documents.
Artificial Intelligence (AI) was all the rage in the 1980s. Specifically, companies invested heavily to build expert systems – AI applications that captured the knowledge of acknowledged human experts and made it available to solve narrowly defined types of problems. Thus, expert systems were created to configure complex computer systems and to detect likely credit card fraud. This earlier round of AI was triggered by a series of successful academic expert applications created at Stanford University. Dendral analyzed mass spectra data and identified organic molecules – something that, previously, only a few chemists could do. Another expert systems was called Mycin, and it analyzed potential of meningitis infections. In a series of tests, it was shown that Mycin could analyze meningitis as well as human meningitis experts, and it even did slightly better, since it never overlooked possible drug incompatibility issues. The expert systems developed in the Eighties all followed the general approach followed by Dendral and Mycin.
This installment of Research for Practice features a curated selection from Alex Ratner and Chris Ré, who provide an overview of recent developments in Knowledge Base Construction (KBC). While knowledge bases have a long history dating to the expert systems of the 1970s, recent advances in machine learning have led to a knowledge base renaissance, with knowledge bases now powering major product functionality including Google Assistant, Amazon Alexa, Apple Siri, and Wolfram Alpha. Ratner and Re's selections highlight key considerations in the modern KBC process, from interfaces that extract knowledge from domain experts to algorithms and representations that transfer knowledge across tasks.
Developers know a lot about the machine learning (ML) systems they create and manage, that's a given. However, there is a need for non-developers to have a high level understanding of the types of systems. Artificial neural networks and expert systems are the classical two key classes. With the advanced in computing performance, software capabilities and algorithm complexity, analytical algorithm can arguably be said to have joined the other two. This article is an overview of the three types.
Spanish police are introducing an artificial-intelligence system to detect liars.Credit: SubstanceP/Getty If you live in southern Spain, last June was not a good time to lose your smartphone and, as a way of getting an insurance payout, falsely claiming that you had been mugged. Ten police forces in Murcia and Malaga had some extra help in spotting your deceit: a computer tool that analysed statements given to officers about robberies and identified the telltale signs of a lie. According to results published in the journal Knowledge-Based Systems, the algorithm was so good at pointing officers towards false claimants that detection of such offences in one week was an impressive 31 and 49 for the respective regions, up from an average of 3 and 12 closed cases over the entire month (L. The government in Madrid is now rolling the system out across the country, and its developers are trying to apply its machine-learning methods to help detect other types of crime. In this case, the algorithm flagged up suspicious wording (based on a training set of statements known to be true and false), and left it up to the police to question suspects and get them to confess.
British Prime Minister Theresa May said Russia's involvement is "highly likely," and she gave the country a deadline of midnight Tuesday to explain its actions in the case. She is reviewing a range of economic and diplomatic measures in retaliation for the assault with what she identified as the military-grade nerve agent Novichok.