January 31, 2018 --Rocket fire streaked across the dark evening sky over Cape Canaveral, Fla., on Jan. The United States had just launched a satellite into orbit, piercing the barrier between our world and the rest of the universe. The oblong Explorer 1 satellite wasn't the first human-made object in space. The Soviet Union's Sputnik claimed that title on Oct. 4, 1957. But the first successful launch of an American satellite made space exploration an international endeavor, paving the way for scientific discoveries of cosmic proportions.
January 23, 2018 --As we push into the final frontier, we are leaving our mark. We have already left more than 400,000 pounds of human-made material on the moon. Rovers and bits of defunct orbiters litter the surface of Mars. And scientists have sent robotic spacecraft hurtling out past Pluto with no final destination. In our own cosmic backyard, space trash abounds.
January 5, 2018 --The idea that there might be gigantic alien structures orbiting a distant star just bit the dust. After citizen astronomers spotted data in 2015 revealing that KIC 8462852, a star about 1,000 light years away, was dimming and brightening in a strange way, one of many explanations proposed by astronomers involved some sort of "megastructures" orbiting the star – perhaps built by aliens to harvest stellar energy. That imaginative suggestion rocketed the star to fame. But Louisiana State University astronomer Tabetha Boyajian and colleagues collected more data on the star, nicknamed "Tabby's Star" for Dr. Boyajian, and they found that the star's strange flickering was thanks to something much more mundane: ordinary dust. "There's dust everywhere in our universe.
Lockheed Martin Corp announced separate plans for a manned Mars journey on Friday, unveiling concept drawings of a "base camp" space station orbiting Mars and landing craft that would carry four astronauts to the planet's surface. "We know its cold, it's pretty inhospitable, so we start with the robots and then we go down with these landers," Rob Chambers, Lockheed's director of human space flight strategy, told Australian Broadcasting Corporation in an interview.
"It's definitely been a paradigm shift in where you might find life," says Cassini project scientist Linda Spilker. Icy geysers fueled by Enceladus's ocean shoot out from cracks in the moon's surface, allowing the Cassini spacecraft to sample them directly during flybys. But that doesn't mean some exotic form of life couldn't be swimming through Titan's methane lakes. With its own watery geysers, Jupiter's moon Europa is another exciting ocean world outside the Goldilocks zone, and is the subject of a coming NASA mission, called Europa Clipper, planned to launch in the 2020s.
Holly Yanco, computer science professor at the University of Massachusetts, Lowell, suggests early measures could be as simple as equipping robots with universal icons. Dr. Shah heads MIT's Interactive Robotics Group, a lab focused on giving robots mental and sensory flexibility to complement their physical prowess. Her team also harnesses machine learning and biophysical modeling to help robots read human body language, and predict where a teammate will move next. A collaboration between CSAIL and Dr. Guenther's lab succeeded in designing a system that let a Baxter robot sort paint cans and wire spools into two buckets by "listening" for error potentials, randomly guessing at first and then self-correcting if it noticed the user thinking it made a mistake.
After all, compared to mammals, birds have small brains relative to their bodies, and bird brains lack a neocortex, which in mammals is thought to be the seat of higher-order thinking such as reasoning, problem-solving, language, and delaying gratification. In one version of the experiment, Osvath and Mr. Kabadayi trained ravens to use a tool to open a box containing a piece of dog kibble, a popular treat among ravens. When presented with the box containing the kibble fifteen minutes later, the ravens passed on the smaller reward 86 percent of the time, ignoring the distractors, and picking the correct tool to open the box. The last common ancestor of humans and birds lived some 320 million years ago, suggesting that these advanced cognitive traits emerged independently in hominids and corvids, using very different brains.
"This is a collaborative endeavor that anyone could get involved in," says Chris Lintott, an Oxford University astrophysicist and cofounder of Zooniverse, a platform that hosts dozens of citizen science projects. As long as pattern recognition is involved, there are no limits to what can become a citizen science project, Dr. Lintott says. For centuries before science became professionalized, regular people looked for patterns in the world around them. As a professional scientist himself, Lintott says, "people think that we're intelligent, but science is easy and we need your help."
A new study reveals the mathematics underlying this phenomenon, modeling how information overload can erode an individual's ability to distinguish high-quality information from its opposite, causing falsehoods to propagate. "It was the first paper I've seen in this area that quantifies what many people thought was happening, and that's basically with limited attention we're unable to see the full range of potential arguments or sides of the story," says Dr. Uzzi, who has studied how social media users isolate themselves into echo chambers. The researchers suggest that social networks could curb information overload by aggressively limiting content shared by so-called bot accounts, software agents that flood social networks with low-quality information. The research reveals some of the math that drives what psychologists have long known: Information overload makes it harder to make decisions.
It pushes people who find themselves isolated back into the social fold. And those who scored higher on self-centeredness one year would report greater feelings of loneliness the following year. "People sort of step back, falling in with an old American tradition of kind of admiring self-sufficiency too much," she says. Previous analysis by Cacioppo and his colleagues suggests that targeting social cognition – that is, re-training the way lonely people think about others – can be more effective at combating loneliness than targeting shyness, building social skills, or increasing opportunities for social contact.