If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
First we examine the vocabulary and the syntax. Then we go through the various objects appearing in this context: pieces, areas, sides, moves, situations, knowledge about chess, people, time, events, judgements, changes, explanations, goals, consequences and reasons. We also consider how the information about an object is put together. Finally we survey the consequences of this analysis for the realization of chess programs. I] presented a systematic account of the facts of thought and of the methods to express them.
The problem we consider in this paper is that of discovering formal rules which will enable us to decide when a question posed in English can be answered on the basis of one or more declarative English sentences. To illustrate how this may be done in very simple cases we give rules which translate certain declarative sentences and questions involving the quantifiers'some', 'every', 'any', and'no' into a modified first-order predicate calculus, and answer the questions by comparing their translated forms with those of the declaratives. We suggest that in order to capture the meanings of more complex sentences it will be necessary to go beyond the first-order predicate calculus, to a notation in which the scope of words other than quantifiers and negations is clearly indicated. We conclude by describing a notational form for connected sentences, which seems to be a natural extension of Chomsky's'deep structures'. In this paper we shall consider the problem of when an English sentence, or a series of sentences, provides enough information to answer a question, also posed in English.
Department of Computer Science University of Edinburgh 1. INTRODUCTION In this paper we describe a program which will assign deep and surface structure analyses to an infinite number of English sentences.1 The design of this program differs in several respects from that of other automatic parsers presently in existence. All these differences are a consequence of the particular aim we have pursued in writing the program, which represents an attempt to construct a device that will not only assign a syntactic analysis to any English sentence-that is, a record of the syntactic structure that the native speaker Perceives in any English sentence-but which also, to some extent, simulates the way in which he perceives this structure. This is not to say that the analyzer differs from others because we have based its design upon the findings of psycholinguistic experiments. For one thing very few experiments on the perception of syntactic structure have been carried out and for the most part the results have been fairly inconclusive.
Special thanks go to Professor Herbert A. Simon, Professor Walter R. Reitman, Professor,James G. March, and Dr. Allen Newell. The work reported in this paper was sponsored by the Ford Foundation, to which I am also grateful. The problem of programming digital computers to behave in complex fashions is equivalent to this aspect of the psychological problem. Today automata theorists agree that no fundamental barrier blocks the development of machines which can think, by any reasonable definition of the term. However, the precise techniques for implementing general thinking proceGseE-J have been only partially developed.
A general system to simulate human cognitive processes is described. The four-part system comprises a nodespace to store the network structure ; a supervisor; a transition network parser; and an interpreter. The method by which noun phrases operate and the process f or the determiner "the" is presented. An analysis of verb structures illustrates how network structures can be constructed from primitiv e verb definitions that get at the underlying structures of particular verbs. The paper concludes with an illustratio n of a problem in question-asking.In IJCAI-73: THIRD INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, 20-23 August 1973, Stanford University Stanford, California.
The problem we consider in this paper is that of discovering formal ruleswhich will enable us to decide when a question posed in English can beanswered on the basis of one or more declarative English sentences. Toillustrate how this may be done in very simple cases we give rules whichtranslate certain declarative sentences and questions involving the quantifiers'some', 'every', 'any', and 'no' into a modified first-order predicate calculus,and answer the questions by comparing their translated forms with those ofthe declaratives. We suggest that in order to capture the meanings of morecomplex sentences it will be necessary to go beyond the first-order predicatecalculus, to a notation in which the scope of words other than quantifiersand negations is clearly indicated.Machine Intelligence 6
A program was writte n to solve calculus word problems. The program, CARPS (CAlculus Rate Problem Solver), is restricte d to rate problems. The overall plan of the program is simila r to Bobrow's STUDENT, the primary difference being the introductio n of "structures " as the internal model in CARPS. Structures are stored internally as trees, each structure holding the information gathered about one object.In Walker, D. E. & Norton, L. N. (eds. ), IJCAI 1969: INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, May 7-9, 1969 Washington, D. C., pp. 241-252