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Semantic Message Detection for Machine Translation, Using an Interlingua

Classics

What is needed is a discipline which will study semantic message-connection in a way analogous to that in which metamathematics studies mathematical connection, and to that in which mathematical linguistics now studies syntactic connection. Research Used as Data for the Construction of T (a) Conceptual Dictionary for English The uses of the main words and phrases of English are mapped on to a classificatory system of about 750 descriptors, or heads, these heads being streamlined from Roget's Thesaurus. For Instance, a single card covers Disappoint, Disappointed, Disappointing, Disappointment. The two connectives, / ("slash") and: ("colon") and a word-order rule are used as in T to replace R.H. Richens' three subscripts, and every two pairs of elements are bracketted together, two bracketted pairs of elements counting as a single pair for the purpose of forming 2nd order brackets.


A design for an understanding machine

Classics

It also maintains that all human meaning may be exhaustively represented in terms of readings on a practically infinite number of calibrated standards, or, alternatively, by elaborate constellations of readings on a very small number of "element" standards. The resolution of a polysemantic ambiguity, by whatever method of translation, ultimately consists of exploiting clues in the words, sentences or paragraphs of text that surround the polysemantic word, clues which make certain of its alternate meanings impossible, and, generally, leave only one of its meanings appropriate for that particular context. Any English speaking human, upon encountering a sentence containing both "bank" and one or more of these clue words, will use the clue word's semantic content, if necessary, to help resolve the meaning of "bank". From there the machine would be programmed to utilize clues in the words surrounding "bank" which might be helpful for deciding which of that word's two meanings was appropriate in this case.


Tigris and Euphrates: A comparison between human and machine translation

Classics

Different types of input passage require different translation procedures, in particular with reference to the relative roles played by syntactic and semantic analysis. Closer formal resemblances may occur between human translation and MT procedures for the same type of input than between the procedures of either the human translation or MT confronted with input passages of various types. When, however, a few italic words occur in a passage otherwise in roman fount, it might be advisable to regard corresponding italic and roman letters as of different types since the italic words represent different indicata than the same words in roman fount. When combined with other symbols, P and G symbols yield relatively precise terminal indicata.


The Thesaurus in Syntax and Semantics

Classics

Limited success has been achieved, in punchedcard tests, in improving the idiomatic quality and so the intelligibility of an initially unsatisfactory translation, by word-for-word procedures, from Italian into English, by using a program which permitted selection of final equivalents from "heads" in Roget's Thesaurus, i.e. As a result of discussions which followed, a Research Unit was formed at Cambridge, with the support of the National Science Foundation of the United States, to investigate these problems further.