If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
In this paper we compare three models of transformational grammar: the mathematical model of Ginsburg and Partee (1969) as applied by Salomaa (1971), the mathematical model of Peters and Ritchie (1971 and forthcoming), and the computer model of Friedman et al. (1971). All of these are, of course, based on the work of Chomsky as presented in Aspects of the Theory of Syntax (1965). We were led to this comparison by the observation that the computer model is weaker in three important ways: search depth is not unbounded, structures matching variables cannot be compared, and structures matching variables cannot be moved. All of these are important to the explanatory adequacy of transformational grammar. Both mathematical models allow the first, they each allow some form of the second, one of them allows the third.
Department of Computer Science University of Edinburgh 1. INTRODUCTION In this paper we describe a program which will assign deep and surface structure analyses to an infinite number of English sentences.1 The design of this program differs in several respects from that of other automatic parsers presently in existence. All these differences are a consequence of the particular aim we have pursued in writing the program, which represents an attempt to construct a device that will not only assign a syntactic analysis to any English sentence-that is, a record of the syntactic structure that the native speaker Perceives in any English sentence-but which also, to some extent, simulates the way in which he perceives this structure. This is not to say that the analyzer differs from others because we have based its design upon the findings of psycholinguistic experiments. For one thing very few experiments on the perception of syntactic structure have been carried out and for the most part the results have been fairly inconclusive.
Copyrightt 1979 William Kaufmann, Inc., all rights reserved. Reprinted by permission from The Handbook of Artificial Intelligence, Vol.I, No.4, Avron Barr & Edward A. Feigenbaum, Eds., 1979. The views and conclusions of this document should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies, either express or implied, of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the National Institutes of Health, or the United States Government. Copyright Notice: The material herein is copyright protected. Those of us Involved in the creation of the Handbook of Artificial Intelligence, both writers and editors, have attempted to make the concepts, methods, tools, and main results of artificial intelligence research accessible to a broad scientific and engineering audience.