"Problem-solving methods using some sort of heurstically guided search process have been the subject of much research in Artificial Intelligence. This paper groups these problem-solving methods under three major headings: the State-Space Approach, the Problem-Reduction Approach and the Formal-Logic Approach." New York: McGraw-Hill.
Language was considered just a "bunch of words" and the primary task for early machine translation (MT) was to build machines large enough to hold all the words necessary in the translation process. These means included the printing out of the several possible solutions of ambiguous text segments to let the reader decide for himself the correct meaning, printing out the ambiguous source language text, and other temporary expedients. Particularly one must understand the rules under which such a complex system as human language operates and how the mechanism of this operation can be simulated by automatic means, i.e., without any human intervention at all. The second problem, the simulation of human language behavior by automatic means, is almost impossible to achieve, since language is an open and dynamic system in constant change and because the operation of the system is not yet completely understood.
This paper is a survey of the current machine translation research in the US, Europe and Japan. A short history of machine translation is presented first, followed by an overview of the current research work. Representative examples of a wide range of different approaches adopted by machine translation researchers are presented. In support of this discussion, issues in, and techniques for, evaluating machine translation systems are addressed.
... The literature does not include any general discussion of the outstanding problems of this field. In this article, an attempt will be made to separate out, analyze, and find the relations between some of these problems. Analysis will be supported with enough examples from the literature to serve the introductory function of a review article, but there remains much relevant work not described here.Proc. Institute of Radio Engineers 49, p. 8-30