I shall discuss automatic methods of search for solutions in problems susceptible of a particular formal representation, namely that on which the Graph Traverser program (Doran & Michie 1966, and see Doran p. 105) has been based. One approach, based on state-evaluation, generates all the states of the problem which can be reached in a small number of moves from the current state, and then seeks by some process of evaluation to decide which state shall form the next point of departure. In the classical studies of Newell, Shaw & Simon (1960) selection is applied by going down a priority sequence of operators, applying to each in turn a number of tests, first of applicability to the current state and then of whether the operator conduces towards one or another of various desirable intermediate states, or subgoals.
The investment process is a problem in decision-making under uncertainty.Â Our model, written as a computer program, simulates the proce- dures used in choosing investment policies for particular accounts, in evaluating the alternatives presented by the market, and in selecting the required portfolios. The analysis is based on the operations at a medium-sized national bank 1 and the decision-maker of our model is the trust imvestment officer.2 From A Simulation of Trust Investment, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1961.
The fundamental thesis says, in effect, that statistics on kind, frequency, location, order, etc., of selected words are adequate to make reasonably good predictions about the subject matter of documents containing those words. Given this approach to automatic indexing, two problems present themselves, viz., the selection of clue words and the prediction techniques relating clue words and subject categories. Statistical data relating clue words and subject categories constitute hypotheses. Another and different class of documents was obtained and using the statistical data gathered initially, a machine was programmed to index automatically the documents in question.
He is a member of the International Fiscal Association, the International Cybernetics Association and the French Operational Research Society. However, a machine for processing information can be an effective aid in searching for sources of legal information, in developing legal argument, in preparing the decision of the administrator or judge, and finally in checking the coherence of solutions arrived at. However, if information retrieval, and indeed logical argument, are to be mechanized, the problem of mechanizing logic must be solved first. We already know that the mechanization of information retrieval involves a problem of developing concepts and relationships, much more than being a technical question.