Results


Analysis of curved line drawings using context and global information

Classics

We describe the analysis of visual scenes consisting of black on white drawings formed with curved lines, depicting familiar objects and forms: houses, trees, persons, and so on; for instance, drawings found in coloring books. The analysis of these line drawings is an instance of'the context problem', which can be stated as'given that a set (a scene) is formed by components that locally (by their shape) are ambiguous, because each shape allows a component to have one of several possible values (a circle can be sun, ball, eye, hole) or meanings, can we make use of context information stated in the form of models, in order to single out for each component a value in such manner that the whole set (scene) is consistent or makes global sense?' This paper proposes a way to solve'the context problem' in the paradigm of coloring book drawings. The problem we are trying to solve is the Context Problem, which can be stated in general words as'given that a set (a scene) is formed by components that locally (by their shape) are ambiguous, because they can have one of several possible values (a circle sun, ball, eye, hole) or meanings, can we make use of By analyzing each component, we come to several possible interpretations of such component, and further disambiguation is possible only by using global information (information derived from several components, or by the interconnection or interrelation between two or more components), under the assumption that the scene as a whole'makes global sense' or is'consistent'.


Natural language question-answering systems: 1969

Classics

In the meantime, Chomsky (1965) devised a paradigm for linguistic analysis that includes syntactic, semantic, and phonological components to account for the generation of natural language statements. This theory can be interpreted to imply that the meaning of a sentence can be represented as a semantically interpreted deep structure--i.e, From computer science's preoccupation with formal programming languages and compilers, there emerged another paradigm. The adoption and combination of these two new paradigms have resulted in a vigorous new generation of language processing systems characterized by sophisticated linguistic and logical processing of well-defined formal data structures. These included a social-conversation machine, systems that translated from English into limited logical calculi, and programs that attempted to answer questions from English text.


On the application of dynamic programming to the determination of optimal play in chess and checkers

Classics

Much of classical and contemporary analysis stems from this source: iteration, ergodic theory, the theory of semigroups [1], the theory of branching processes [2], random transformations at fixed times and deterministic transformations at stochastic times [3, 4]. Let us now describe a dynamic programming process of discrete, deterministic type. This is an extremely important observation since it enables us to employ a type of approximation not available in classical analysis, approximation in policy space. A particular class of problems of this type involves ordinary and partial differential operators and is related both to the theory of differential inequalities inaugurated by Caplygin and Lyapunoy [15, 16], and to the modern maximum principles of partial differential equations.


Syntactic dependence and the computer generation of coherent discourse

Classics

The two primary components of the experimental computer program consisted of a phrase structure generation grammar capable of generating grammatical nonsense, and a monitoring system which would abort the generation process whenever it was apparent that the dependency structure of a sentence being generated was not in harmony with the dependency relations existing in an input source text. Potential applications include automatic kernelizing, question answering, automatic essay writing, and automatic abstracting systems. Introduction This paper sets forth the hypothesis that there is in the English language a general principle of transitivity of dependence among elements and describes an experiment in the computer generation of coherent discourse that supports the hypothesis. Given as input a set of English sentences, if we hold constant the set of vocabulary tokens and generate grammatical English statements from that vocabulary with the additional restriction that their transitive dependencies agree with those of the input text, the resulting sentences will all be truth-preserving paraphrases derived from the original set.


Tigris and Euphrates: A comparison between human and machine translation

Classics

Different types of input passage require different translation procedures, in particular with reference to the relative roles played by syntactic and semantic analysis. Closer formal resemblances may occur between human translation and MT procedures for the same type of input than between the procedures of either the human translation or MT confronted with input passages of various types. When, however, a few italic words occur in a passage otherwise in roman fount, it might be advisable to regard corresponding italic and roman letters as of different types since the italic words represent different indicata than the same words in roman fount. When combined with other symbols, P and G symbols yield relatively precise terminal indicata.


Truth and probability

Classics

Footnote numbering is maintained as in the original text -- as a result, page numbers are also noted for where the footnote originally appears. Some minor typographical errors remain in the1931 edition which are corrected here: - - Page 169, line 19, we replaced "intensities fo feelings" with "intensities of feelings" Page 176, line 22 we replaced "few asumptions as possible" with "few assumptions as possible" - - Page 187, line 12, we replaced "objective interpetation" with "objective interpretation" Page 191, Footnote 1, we replaced "guided only be ratiocination" with "guided only by ratiocination". Keynes's symbolism p/h meaning the probability of proposition p given proposition h. "Truth and Probability" written 1926. CONTENTS (1) The Frequency Theory (2) Mr Keynes' Theory (3) Degrees of Belief (4) The Logic of Consistency (5) The Logic of Truth (1) THE FREQUENCY THEORY In the hope of avoiding some purely verbal controversies, I propose to begin by making some admissions in favour of the frequency theory.