In forming such a view the Council has available to it a great deal of specialist information through its structure of Boards and Committees-- particularly from the Engineering Board and its Computing Science Committee and from the Science Board and its Biological Sciences Committee. To supplement the important mass of specialist and detailed information available to the Science Research Council, its Chairman decided to commission an independent report by someone outside the Al eld but with substantial general experience of research work in multidisciplinary elds including elds with mathematical, engineering and biological aspects. Such a personal view of the subject might be helpful to other lay persons such as Council members in the process of preparing to study specialist reports and recommendations and working towards detailed policy formation and decision taking. In scientic applications, there is a similar look beyond conventional data processing to the problems involved in large-scale data banking and retrieval, The vast eld of chemical compounds is one which has lent itself to ingenious and eective programs for data storage and retrieval and for the inference of chemical structure from mass-spec- trometry and other data.
This paper is a survey of the current machine translation research in the US, Europe and Japan. A short history of machine translation is presented first, followed by an overview of the current research work. Representative examples of a wide range of different approaches adopted by machine translation researchers are presented. In support of this discussion, issues in, and techniques for, evaluating machine translation systems are addressed.
A recognition algorithm is exhibited whereby an arbitrary string over a given vocabulary can be tested for containment in a given context-free language. A special merit of this algorithm is that it is completed in a number of steps proportional to the "cube" of the number of symbols in the tested string. As a byproduct of the grammatical analysis, required by the recognition algorithm, one can obtain, by some additional processing not exceeding the "cube" factor of computational complexity, a parsing matrix--a complete summary of the grammatical structure of the sentence. It is shown that this simulation likewise requires a number of steps proportional to only the "cube" of the test string length.
This listing is intended as an introduction to the literature on Artificial Intelligence, i.e., to the literature dealing with the problem of making machines behave intelligently. We have divided this area into categories and cross-indexed the references accordingly. Large bibliographies without some classification facility are next to useless. This particular field is still young, but there are already many instances in which workers have wasted much time in rediscovering (for better or for worse) schemes already reported. In the last year or two this problem has become worse, and in such a situation just about any information is better than none. This bibliography is intended to serve just that purpose-to present some information about this literature. The selection was confined mainly to publications directly concerned with construction of artificial problem-solving systems. Many peripheral areas are omitted completely or represented only by a few citations.IRE Trans. on Human Factors in Electronics, HFE-2, pages 39-55