If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
This paper is a survey of the current machine translation research in the US, Europe and Japan. A short history of machine translation is presented first, followed by an overview of the current research work. Representative examples of a wide range of different approaches adopted by machine translation researchers are presented. In support of this discussion, issues in, and techniques for, evaluating machine translation systems are addressed.
In any of the board positions of Figure 1 white play at node 1 has the consequence that a 5-pattern can be completed at the next white move whatever the intervening black move: if black plays node l' (1') then white plays 1 (1'). Figure 1 shows a board position in which, after play at node The essential content of this (and similar) board positions is: there exists a node which is a constituent of two possible 5-patterns, with two pieces played, on each of two lines through the node. Play at the explicit node creates a set of realisations of the object described in Example 2 with no node common to all of them and which consequently cannot all be destroyed by the opponent's next move. In the board position of Figure 1, after play at node 1 a realisation of the objects described in Examples 2 and 3 is created at nodes l' and 2 respectively.
A recognition algorithm is exhibited whereby an arbitrary string over a given vocabulary can be tested for containment in a given context-free language. A special merit of this algorithm is that it is completed in a number of steps proportional to the "cube" of the number of symbols in the tested string. As a byproduct of the grammatical analysis, required by the recognition algorithm, one can obtain, by some additional processing not exceeding the "cube" factor of computational complexity, a parsing matrix--a complete summary of the grammatical structure of the sentence. It is shown that this simulation likewise requires a number of steps proportional to only the "cube" of the test string length.
This listing is intended as an introduction to the literature on Artificial Intelligence, i.e., to the literature dealing with the problem of making machines behave intelligently. We have divided this area into categories and cross-indexed the references accordingly. Large bibliographies without some classification facility are next to useless. This particular field is still young, but there are already many instances in which workers have wasted much time in rediscovering (for better or for worse) schemes already reported. In the last year or two this problem has become worse, and in such a situation just about any information is better than none. This bibliography is intended to serve just that purpose-to present some information about this literature. The selection was confined mainly to publications directly concerned with construction of artificial problem-solving systems. Many peripheral areas are omitted completely or represented only by a few citations.IRE Trans. on Human Factors in Electronics, HFE-2, pages 39-55