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ER10.pdf

Classics (Collection 2)

EXAMPLES AND LEARNING SYSTEMS* Edwina L. Rissland Department of Computer and Information Science University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003, U.S.A. INTRODUCTION Any system that learns or adapts -- whether well-- or ill--defined, man or machine -- must have examples, experiences, and data on which to base its learning or adaptation. Too often, however, the examples that form the basis of learning are taken for granted. This paper will concentrate on the examples as a study in their own right. BACKGROUND The importance of examples to learning systems can be seen in many well--known A.I. programs. For instance, Winston's program [1975] learns the concept of "arch" from a sequence of examples: of arches and non--arches.



3 Beyond LOGLISP: combining functional and relational programming in a reduction setting

Classics (Collection 2)

The initial plan for LOGLISP [1] was simply that it would offer, within LISP, a Horn-clause relational programming facility akin to PROLOG. This it does, but with some differences from PROLOG, notably the use of a breadth-first, rather than depth-first, elaboration of the underlying tree of alternative linear proofs, and the consequent avoidance of explicit backtracking as a control mechanism. It was because of these differences that the facility was called LOGIC rather than PROLOG, which would have been misleading. The name LOGLISP then refers to the combined system: LOGIC LISP. It soon became apparent, however, that the main interest of LOGLISP lay rather in its (relatively crude, but genuine) attempt to merge the functional programming style of LISP with the relational programming style of LOGIC and PROLOG.



LOGLISP: an alternative to PROLOG

Classics (Collection 2)

Seven years or so after it was first proposed (Kowalski 1974), the technique of'logic programming' today has an enthusiastic band of users and an increasingly impressive record of applications. For most of these people, logic progamming means PROLOG, the system defined and originally implemented by the Marseille group (Roussel 1975). The Strachey-Landin-Scott doctrine is of course quite compatible with the belief that one can make a machine which when given a program as input will systematically work out and deliver a description of its denotation. Landin's classic interpreter -- the SECD machine -- is the very essence of such a device. We can say that the computation of the machine is correct (if it is) only because we have a machine-independent notion of what the program is intended to denote.



MACHINE INTELLIGENCE 6

Classics (Collection 2)

A programming language based on sets; motivation and examples. In the introduction to the previous volume, it was mentioned that each future Workshop would include a specially invited address on possible social applications and implications of intelligent machines. The Sixth Machine Intelligence Workshop, the proceedings of which are recorded here, marks the first of this new series. Professor R. L. Gregory presented, in terms both whimsical and profound, his conception of'brain fictions' and their relation to the interface between the worlds of the psychologist and of the engineer. Gregory's message is directed towards whoever is willing himself to question the origins and consequences of new technologies and the transformations of Man's self-picture which they bring in their train.


Report 83-31.pdf

Classics (Collection 2)

Reprinted, with permission, from Computer, No.12, pp.41-56, December 1983. The experimental Palladio environment recognizes the need to iniegrate tools and languages in an attempt to create a flexible design framework. Palladio - is a circuit design environment for experimenting with methodologies and knowledge-based, expert-system design aids. Its framework is based on several premises about circuit design: (1) circuit (-1-sign is a process of incremental refinement; (2) it is an exploratory process in which design specifications and design goals coevolve; and (3) most important, circuit designers need an integrated design environment that provides compatible design tools ranging from simulators to layout generators, that permits specification of digital systems in compatible languages ranging anywhere from architectural to layout, and includes the means for explicitly representing, constructing, and testing such design tools and languages. The Palladio environment is part of a growing trend toward creating integrated design environments and away from isolated design aids.


Report 82-02.pdf

Classics (Collection 2)

ABSTRACT This paper* proposes the use of explicit austraction levels to organize decision making in digital design. These levels partition the concerns that a designer must consider at any time. They provide terms and composition rules for the composition of structural descriptions within a level. This allows multiple opportunities for mapping behavior into structure. A version of this paper was presented at the Conference on Advanced Research in VLSI, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, January 25-27, 1982.