Results


25 A Logic of Actions

Classics (Collection 2)

One of the central principles upon which intelligent devices seem to operate is that of maintaining internal models of their external environments. This approach is more general than the heuristic search method (but the latter -- when it has sufficient expressive power -- wins at present by its computational advantage). But in some ways the resulting sharp separations between states of affairs are an embarrassment. For if we distinguish two situations s1 and s2, then from the fact, if such it be, that a predicate p is true of Si, nothing whatever follows concerning s2. And this is true even when s2 is directly associated with sl.


28 Robotologic

Classics (Collection 2)

A robot, in order to act intelligently, must be able to reason from facts which its sensors detect to conclusions which govern its actions. This reasoning process is so central to human intelligence that it seems immediately relevant to the problems of robot design to consider its properties, how it might be analysed and imitated. Obviously these are not the specialities of the most refined thinking. They are the commonplaces of the least refined thinking; and are yet the indispensable core of the conceptual equipment of the most sophisticated human beings. It is with these, their inter-connexions, and the structure that they form, that a descriptive metaphysics will be primarily concerned.'


27 Planning and Robots

Classics (Collection 2)

This paper is a survey and discussion of research work relevant to the task of constructing some kind of reasoning robot. The emphasis is entirely on the organization of the reasoning processes, in particular planning, rather than on hardware. In practice the reasoning would most probably be carried out within a digital computer. My objective is to clarify the relationship between some superficially rather disparate approaches to this task, and simultaneously to indicate what seem to be the key problem areas. No new experimental results are presented, but the approach to the subject which I have adopted is a consequence of earlier experimentation with a simple computer simulation of a robot (Doran 1968a, 1969).


26 Some Philosophical Problems from the Standpoint of Artificial Intelligence

Classics (Collection 2)

A computer program capable of acting intelligently in the world must have a general representation of the world in terms of which its inputs are interpreted. Designing such a program requires commitments about what knowledge is and how it is obtained. Thus, some of the major traditional problems of philosophy arise in artificial intelligence. More specifically, we want a computer program that decides what to do by inferring in a formal language that a certain strategy will achieve its assigned goal. This requires formalizing concepts of causality, ability, and knowledge.


Some philosophical problems from the standpoint of artificial intelligence

Classics

"A computer program capable of acting intelligently in the world must have a general representation of the world in terms of which its inputs are interpreted. Designing such a program requires commitments about what knowledge is and how it is obtained. Thus, some of the major traditional problems of philosophy arise in artificial intelligence.More specifically, we want a computer program that decides what to do by inferring in a formal language that a certain strategy will achieve its assigned goal. This requires formalizing concepts of causality, ability, and knowledge. Such formalisms are also considered in philosophical logic." - from the Introduction reprinted in Matthew Ginsberg (ed.), Readings in Nonmonotonic Reasoning, pp. 26-45, San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc., 1987.Stanford web version. D. Michie and B. Meltzer (Eds.), Machine intelligence 4 - Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 463-502




Robotologic

Classics

In Meltzer, Bernard and Donald Michie (Eds.), Machine Intelligence 5. Edinburgh University Press.